Science! 2.1 for Jess

81 terms by Loz_8

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group

a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; elements in a group share chemical properties

period

a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table

Mixture

separated mechanically. no fromula

atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

atomic mass

total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass units

electronegativity

The stength in which an atom holds its electrons. the tendency of an atom to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond. increases as you go up a group and from left to right on the periodic table.

Electronegativity in non-metals are...

high, greedy for more

80% of the elements are...

Metals.

Electronegativity in metals is...

low, litttle control

Metals

electrical conductivity, luster, malleability, ductility, thermal conductivity. atoms of metals exist in lattices. All bu mecurty are solid at room temperature.

cation

a positively charged ion

anion

a negatively charged ion

Elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals are called

metalloids

How are the electrons in a "cloud" of electrons like the blade of the fan?

Electrons in a cloud move in such a way around the nucleus that is impossible to identify their positions.

How does the mass of a proton compare to the mass of an electron?

A proton is 2000 times more massive than an electron. Or an electron is 1/2000 the mass of a proton

Where is the majority of the volume found in an atom?

the electron cloud

What are the smallest particles that make up elements and compounds?

atoms

What happens if protons are added to an atom?

The atom becomes a different element

Non Metals

-poor conductors/ do not conduct (insulators)
-melting and boiling points are so low that they are usually liquids or gases at room temperature
-brittle and tend to crumble
-dull, little or no shine/luster

Group 8 atoms are the only ones that exist by themselves. MOst others form molecules that contain 2 atoms. Some form lattics.

ion

number of electrons and protons in not eqal

Who predicted new elements and is credited with creating the periodic table?

Mendeleev

How did Mendeleev arrange the elements? How is the modern periodic table organized?

Mendeleev-increasing atomic mass
Now-increasing atomic number (number of protons)
Very similar

In a fight or chemical reaction. Metals vs Non metals

non metals try to rob metals of their outer sell electron (valance)> non metals from a positive ion, their name usually changes. Metals loose and therefore form a negative ion.

How can the properties of an element be predicted?

From its location on the periodic table

Isotope

an atom in which the number of protons and neutrons difer.

Where are the semimetals located on the periodic table?

Going down the "staircase" or on the zig zag line

What period are the lanthanides located?

Period 6

What period are the actinides located?

Period 7

How do they alkali metals react?

They lose one electron

How do the alkaline earth metals react?

They lose two electron

How do the halogens react?

They gain one electron

How reactive are the inert gases?

Completely unreactive

Atomic mass increases

as you go from left to right

How does reactivity change in metals as you go from the left to the right in the periodic table.

In general, reactivity decreases.

How does the reactivity change as you go down the alkali metal. What is the least and most reactive alkali metals?

As you go down, the metals become more reactive. Lithium is the least reactive and francium is the most reactive.

Hydrogen is in group 1. Is it an alkali metal or a nonmetal? Why is is it in group 1?

Non metal. It has one valence electron, so it is in group 1. It cannot be placed with halogens as it has just one valence

How many periods are in the periodic table?

7

How many groups are in the periodic table?

18

What information is listed in an element's square in the periodic table?

atomic number, chemical symbol, element name, atomic mass

What are 8 physical properties of metals?

malleability, ductility, luster, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, high melting points, solid at room temperature, and magnetism.

Patina and rust are examples of what?

oxidation-oxygen reacting with a metal. Patina is oxygen reacting with copper (ex. old penny or the Statue of Liberty). Rust is oxygen reacting with iron.

Discuss the relative hardness of pure alkali metals compared to pure alkaline earth metals.

Some alkali metals are so soft they can be cut with a plastic knife. Alkaline earth are harder than alkali metals

Is reactivity a chemical or physical property? Why?

Chemical property. New substances are being created.

What is one physical property characteristic of all transition metals?

good conductors of electricity

What are the most reactive metals

alkali metals

what are the most reactive non-metals?

the halogens

What is the second family called?

alkaline earth metals

What are the metals in the center called?

Transition metals

Are families up and down or left and right

up and down

What are the significance of periods?

They have similar traits that continue on an exponential track

What are valance electrons?

The electrons on the outermost shell on an atom

How many electrons can the K shell hold?

2 electrons

What is a lewis dot diagram?

this shows only the Valence electrons

What is a Bohr model

this shows all electrons in an atom

How many electrons can the L shell hold?

8

How many electrons can the M shell hold?

18

How many electrons can the N shell hold?

32

What is the octet rule?

Atoms with 8 electrons are not reactive

Characteristics of metals

shiny, bright luster, good conductors

Characteristics of non-metals

dull, dull luster, bad conductors

Characteristics of metalloids

Metalloids typically conduct heat and electricity better than nonmetals but not as well as metals. They are solids. They conduct heat and electricity. They insulate at low temperatures. They conduct at high temperatures.

Group VIII

noble gases

What are the three classes of elements?

Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids

Why is a row called a period?

Because the properties of elemnts in a row follow a periodic pattern

Characteristics given in a square on the periodic table

Atomic number, atomic mass, chemical symbol, and element name

Group 13

Boron group

Group 3-12

Transition metals

Dmitri Mendeleev

Russian chemist; contructed the first periodic table and arranged the elements in increasing atomic mass.

Law of Octaves

States that in every 8th interval, the elements have the same characteristics.

Periodic Law

States, "When the elements are arranged in increasing atomic number, similar properties of elements appear at regular intervals or periodically."

Where do the most reactive metals lie on the periodic table

bottom left

Where are the most reactive non metals?

upper right

Blocks of elements without group numbers

transition elements, the lanthanides and the actnides.

electronegativity

The strength with wich as atom holds its electrons. Metal atoms have a low electronegativity and non- metals have a high electronegativity. Metals have little control over their outer elextrons while non-metals have tight control and are 'greedy' for more. Non metals try to rob metals of their valence electrons.

Hydrogen

If it looses one electron it beceomes the hydroge ion H+. if it gains one it will become the hydride ion h-. It can act like a group I or a group VII element depending on what i comes into contact with.

Group V111 Noble Gases

-colourless gases
-stable and react really under extreme circumstances
-helium is very light

VII Halogens

-forms ions with a charge of -1
-are never found in their pure form in nature but are in various types of salts
-coloured and poisonous vapours
-all form molecules, each being made up of two atoms
-all convert Hydrogen sulfide into solfur.
-react similar to iron

Alkali Metals

-form +1 ions
-very reactive
-typical metallic properties
-similar chemically extreme behaviours

alkaline earths

similar to group 1 but less reactive.

Group IV

-as non metals, a metalloid and metals.

Transition metals

-useful, colourful valuable metals such as iron coppor zinc gold and silver.
Similar properties.

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