Judaism before the destruction of the Second Temple (70 C.E.)
Judaism that developed after the destruction of the second temple (70 C.E.) and is more mainstream
Questioned and modernized traditional Judaism and helped produce the diverse branches within Judaism that exist today. It also raised the issue of Jewish identity.
Teachers of Jewish scriptures.
Rabbinical commentary on the scriptures and oral law
Originally oral material that was subsequently written down as early as 900 B.C.E., although the final form was not achieved until 200 B.C.E. It is divided into 3 sections: the Torah, Nevi'im, and Ketuvim
Means "the Teachings," composed of 5 books sometimes called the "Pentateuch," and it contains creation, Adam and Eve, Noah, and the Hebrew patriarchs and matriarchs. It includes laws about daily conduct and religious ritual
Means "the Prophets," and is named for those individuals who spoke in God's name to the Jewish people. The first of the prophets is Abraham.
Means "the Writings," contains primarily imaginative literature of short stories, proverbs, reflections on life, hymn lyrics, and poetery
The ancient region lying between the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and the Mediterranean: the land promised by God to Abraham, which establishes a Jewish claim to Israel
A contract, as when God promised Abraham to protect the promised land and the descendants there but in return for all male descendants to be circumcised as a sign of their exclusive relationship with God.
Stories that tell of mysterious contacts with God.
A yearly Jewish festival, Also known as Pasch; Jewish feast commemorating the deliverance of the Jewish people from death by the blood of the lamb sprinkled on the doorposts in Egypt, which the angel of death saw and passed over.
Human beings who spoke in God's name
Weekly day of worship and rest for Jews
The winter 8-day festival that recalls the rededication of the Second Temple, sometimes called the Feast of Lights.
The first Jewish faction to emerge, a priestly faction, influential during the Second Temple period and they were more traditional - at least in public behavior
The second Jewish faction to emerge, their focus was on preserving Hebrew piety through careful observation of religious laws and traditions. Later, rabbinical Judaism would develop from and continue the work of the Pharisees
The third faction, opposed foreign influences and after 6 C.E. was bitterly opposed to Roman rule of Israel. The patriots sometimes used violent means against Romans to achieve their ends
The fourth faction. Not much is known about them, but it is written that they lived a communal, celibate life primarily in the desert near the Dead Sea. They rejected animal sacrifice and avoided meat and wine. They were skilled in medicine, dressed in white, followed a solar calendar, and kept separate from the rest of society. Their library was the Dead Sea Scrolls
The long-awaited savior sent by God to the Jews
Dispersion of the Jews beyond Israel
"Study", the collection of ancient rabbinic writings on Jewish law and tradition (the Mishna and the Gemara) that constitute the basis of religious authority in Orthodox Judaism. After the Hebrew Bible itself, this become the second-most important body of Jewish literature
"Received/Handed down," this is the whole body of Jewish mystical literature, and that passages of the Hebrew Bible were to be interpreted symbolically instead of literally. The most famous book of this is the Zohar, "splendor," which from the divine Unity comes ten active divine powers
Rise of Christianity
Carried anti-Jewish prejudice from when it was separating from its Jewish origins. Jews were regularly persecuted, and in the late Middle Ages, European Jews were forced into exile, expelled from England, France, Spain, and Portugal.
2 new forms of Judaism
Traditional (Orthodox) Judaism - attempted to maintain the best of tradition, offer refuge from an uncertain world
Liberal direction, Reform - move out of ghettos, gain a secular education, make worship more accessible, and to enter the mainstream of their respective countries,
Persecution of Jews
Adolf Hitler in 1933 began a long wave of anti-Jewish activity. First they were forced out of government and University positions, boycotted Jewish stores, and eventually physically persecuted them.
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled. 6/12 million that died are supposed to be Jews, of that, 1 and 1/2 were Jewish children.
A Jewish nation where Jews could live without fear in the traditional historic home of their faith. Named after Mount Zion, the mountain on which Jerusalem is built. The British signed the Balfour Declaration, giving Jews limited immigration into Palestine. After WWII, the UN voted to divide Palestine into two states: one for Jews and one for Palestinians
Israel and US Judaism
US is largely liberal and enjoys general freedom of practice
In Israel, Judaism encompasses a wide spectrum of opinions and practices, ranging form liberal and atheistic to highly conservative and traditionally religious
For the majority of the population, Judaism is more culture than religion
The Jewish New Year, recalls the creation of the world and occurs during autumn, allowing people to consider their obligations and pay off their debts.
The Day of Atonement, to make up for one's faults, traditionally kept by prayer and strict fasting with no food or drink during the entire day.
Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur, this period of time is called the Days of Awe because of the mood of solemn judgement
"Shelters/booths," a joyful harvest celebration, a festival in the late autumn that recalls the Jews' period of wandering in the desert after their exodus from Egypt.
A late-winter feast just before spring commemorates when the Hebrews were in danger of annihilation in Mesopotamia. This festival is marked by the reading of the Book of Esther
The most significant event of Passover, a memorial meal, where symbolic foods are eaten, such as flat bread, lamb, a salad of nuts and fruits. An additional place setting and wine is for Elijah, in hopes that he will return to Earth to announce the coming of the Messiah
The Jewish dietary practice meaning "ritually correct". No: pig meat, shellfish, eggs, milk of forbidden animals, all blood must be drained or broiled out before eaten, parts of permitted animals may not be eaten, etc...
A prayer shawl that signifies humility in the sight of God
A ceremony at age 13 when a young man legally becomes an adult, or "son of the commandment"
Contemporary Divisions of Judaism
Sephardic Jews -comes from a mythic land of Sephar. More than half of the Jews of Israel are of Sephardic background
Ashkenazim Jews - Jews who at one time lived in or came from Central Europe, usually speak Yiddish, and the culture mostly ended at the Holocaust
4 Observance Based Divisions
Orthodox - traditional Judaism
Conservative - Desired moderate change coupled with a protection of beloved traditions. It accepts change, but through careful study and discussion
Reform - Judaism could be combined with civil culture and embrace many of the ideals of the European Enlightenment - human dignity, equality, and individual liberty. Every Jewish belief could be questioned
Reconstruction - Influenced by American ideals of democracy and practicality. It allows for traditional elements of Judaism to be up for individual interpretation