Fundamentals of Nursing Chapter 18: Hygiene and Care of the Patient's Environment

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Hygiene

the science of health

Personal hygiene

the self-care measures people use to maintain their health

Medical asepsis

hygienic practices tend to promote this; aka the clean technique

Factors that influence patient's personal hygiene?

social practices, body image, socioeconomic status, knowledge, personal preference, physical condition, and cultural variables

Pathogenic

disease-producing microorganisms

Vertigo

dizziness

Syncope

fainting

Febrile

condition characterized by an elevated body temperature

Canthus

corner of the eye

Axilla

underarm area or the armpit

Umbilicus

the depressed point in the middle of the abdomen

Perineum

the genital area

Why are the lower extremities never massaged?

prevents a possible embolus(moving blood clot)

Shearing force

tissue layers of skin slide on each other causing subcutaneous blood vessels to kink or stretch and results in an interruption of blood flow to the skin

Friction

the rubbing of skin against another surface; may remove layers of tissue

Patients at risk for pressure sores

are ill, debilitated, older, disabled, incontinent, and have spinal cord injuries, limited mobility or poor overall nutrition

Suspected deep tissue injury

localized purple or maroon area of intact skin or a blood-filled blister

Stage 1 pressure ulcer

intact skin with nonblanchable redness

Stage 2 pressure ulcer

partial thickness loss of dermis; shallow/open ulcer usually shiny or dry without slough or bruising

Stage 3 pressure ulcer

full thickness tissue loss in which subcutaneous fat is sometimes visible but bone, tendon, and muscle are not exposed

Stage 4 pressure ulcer

full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, or muscle; often inlcudes undermining or tunneling

Unstageable pressure ulcer

full thickness tissue loss, a wound base cover by slough and/or eschar in the wound bed that will usually be tan, brown, or black

Oral hygiene

care of the oral cavity

Dentures

a set of artificial teeth not permanently fixed or implanted

Patients at Risk for Oral Disorders

lack of knowledge about oral hygiene, inability to perform oral hygiene etc.

Anticoagulants

medications that increase the tendency to bleed

Circumorbital

circular area around the eye

Cerumen

wax

Chux

waterproof pads

Bedpan

device for receiving feces or urine from either male or female patients confined to bed

Urinal

a device for collecting urine from male patients; urinals for females are also available

Two types of bed pans

regular and fracture

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