← Nationalism in Asia Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All mandate system Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision; The British & French received the Arab provinces of the Former Ottoman Empire as mandates. League of Nations new principle of development toward the eventual goal of self-government. Britain Trans-Jordan (Jordan), Iraq, and Palestine became mandates to Britain. France Lebanon and Syria became mandates of France Arab provinces opposed the mandates and called for political independence in 1919 in Damascus as the General Syrian Congress. Former Ottoman Empire The British and French received the Arab provinces of the Former Ottoman Empire as mandates. Oil discovered in Iran in 1908 Nationalism Nationalism was encouraged by the British during the war as they search for regional allies against the Ottomans. Contradictory Promises To the Arab Sheraif Husain, the British promised independence for all Arab territories within the Ottoman Empire. To the European Zionist movement, in the Balfour Declaration (November 1917), the British promised "a national home" for Jews in Palestine. All the while, the British were making deals with the French to divide these territories among themselves. Sheraif Husian Chief Magistrate of Mecca who governed much of the Ottoman Empire's territory along the Red Sea. European Zionist movement in the Balfour Declaration (November 1917), the British promised "a national home" for Jews in Palestine. Balfour Declaration A 1917 statement by British Foreign secretary Arthur Balfour that supported the idea of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) Turkish nationalist leader who became the first president of modern Turkey in the 1920's and set about to modernize and Westernize Turkey, including making it more secular. National Liberation Movement Under the leadership of General Mustafa Kemal "Atatürk" ("Father of the Turks,") a national liberation movement, drove the Greeks from western Anatolia, occupied one-half of Armenia (the other half was taken by the new Soviet Union), and ended the Ottoman Sultanate. Ottoman Sultanate ended as a result of a National Liberation Movement led by Atatürk. Gallipoli A failed British offensive in Ottoman empire, A poorly planned and badly executed Allied campaign to capture the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli during World War I in 1915. Turkish secular nation-state The new Turkish government pushed through a sweeping program of reforms which aimed at turning the county into a modern secular nation-state along western lines. Turkish Parliament New Turkish parliament adopted the separation of state and religion. Secularist Laws European family law replaced the Sha'ria law, Islam was no longer the religion of the state, Suppressed religious orders, Abolished the fez, Introduced family surnames, Introduced the Western calendar, metric weights and measures, modern clothing, and women's suffrage, and Substituted Roman/ Latin script for the Arabic Script. India The British had promised to increase Indian participation in government in order to maintain Indian support during the war. Indian Nationalist Movement Gandhi promoted a campaign of nonviolent non-cooperation & began to mobilize millions of Indians. Mahatma Gandhi Indian Nationalist Leader Hindus and Muslims followers of Mahatma Gandhi Nonviolent, non-cooperation Mahatma Gandhi's campaign of nonviolent noncooperation mobilized millions of Indians. Amristar Massacre Amristar massacre (1919) when General Reginald Dyer's troops fired on the crowd and killed 400 Indian civilians. General Reginald Dyer british general that commanded his troops to open fire at the mass of protestors gathered at Amritsar The India Act of 1935 granted responsible government at provincial level & a partially elected legislature at the national level. China China's setbacks in the Sino-Japansese war and Boxer Rebellion helped set the stage for the downfall of the Qing dynasty. Warlords Local armies were beholden to warlords rather than to the central government, created a threatening situation for the Qing. 1911 Revolution When a regional army mutinied in 1911, Yuan Shikai, the most powerful of the regional generals, refused to defend the Qing, who fell from power. Yuan Shikai most powerful of the regional generals. Chinese Republic Yuan was an able military leader, but he had no political program to modernize the Chinese Republic Sun Yat-sen He founded a political party called Guomindang Guomindang Sun Yat-sen's political party; National People's Party Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) As an officer & director of the military academy, Chiang trained several hundred young officers who remained loyal to him thereafter. Japan In Japan, during the post war period an ambitious military, impatient with Japan's weak democratic institutions, sought control of the government. Liberal Politicians politicians favoring improved representative government sought control of the government. Military Solution the depressed conditions of workers, peasants, & business people, military leaders said if Japan were to conquer nearby regions it would provide new farmlands & create markets. Then Japanese peasants would settle new areas such as Manchuria, while business people would benefit from a larger pool of consumers, workers, & raw materials in annexed lands. Emperor's Army Japan's military leaders promoted the idea that the military was an institution unto itself, an "emperor's army" not subject to civilian control, and that it would bring about a new world order and the fulfillment of Japan's destiny Emperor Hirohito By the 1930s, the Japanese Emperor Hirohito and his advisers had built public support for a militaristic imperial system Racial superiority Renewed military vigor was seen is key to Japan's claims to racial superiority & its entitlement o the lands of people they considered "inferior". Attack on Japanese Train In September 1931 it blew up a Japanese-owned train in the Chinese province of Manchuria and made it look like an attack on Japan. The military then used the explosion as an excuse to invade the territory, set up a puppet government, and push farther into China. League of Nations China appealed to the League of Nations in protest of Japan invading Manchuria. Although the League condemned the invasion, it imposed no penalties or economic sanctions against Japan. Meanwhile the Japanese army dealt with the democratic opposition by simply assassinating them. Militarization By 1937, Japan's government was spending 47 percent of its budget on weaponry, thanks to the successful mobilization of people from all classes. Young Turks Idealistic Turkish exiles in Europe and young army officers in Istanbul who seized power in the revolution of 1908 and helped pave the way for the birth of modern secular Turkey. Treaty of Lausanne The 1923 treaty that ended the Turkish war and recognized the territorial integrity of a truly independent Turkey. May Fourth Movement A nationalist movement against foreign imperialists; it began as a student protest against the decision of the Versailles Peace Conference to leave the Shangdon Peninsula in the hands of Japan. New Culture Movement An intellectual revolution, sometimes called the Chinese Renaissance, that attacked traditional Chinese, particularly Confucian, culture and promoted Western ideas of science, democracy, and individualism, from around 1916 to 1923. Long March The 6,000-mile retreat of the Communist army to a remote region on the northwestern border of China, during which tens of thousands lost their lives.