checks and balance. Separation of powers: basis for U.S. constitution. Suggested judicial, legislative, executive. Criticized absolute monarchy.
He was the leader of the committee of public safety. He sent many people to the guillotine during the Reign of Terror because they were against the revolution or were criminals. After a year in the reign of terror he was seen as a threat and executed, ending the terror.
"without tight knee britches"; a radical group of shopkeepers and wage earners during the French Revolution who wanted a larger voice in government and an end to food shortages
the social network that put clergy and nobles at the top of the network and the third estate at the bottom. This meant that most of the time, clergy and nobles did not interfere or speak with the third estate.
people in the upper part of 3rd estate, usually considered "middle class" (doctors, lawyers, merchants, and business managers). They wanted more political power to balance 1st and 2nd estates.
The 3 Estates
The 1st Estate, made up of clergy of Roman Catholic Church, Scorned Enlightenment ideas, (less than 1% of the people) The 2nd Estate, made up of rich nobles, held highest offices in government, disagreed about Enlightenment ideas. (2% of the people) The 3rd Estate, included the bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers, had no power to influence government, embraced enlightenment ideas, resented the wealthy 1st and 2nd estates, paid high taxes
a tenth of a person living in the third estate's wages that were payed to the church. This gave clergy a lot of money and power.
a form of taxing that involved people in the third estate. This made people work for the government with no pay.
a person who favored extreme change. ex: people during the French revolution who were radical wanted to change the way the government was run.
A king, sometimes a queen, with complete authority over the government and people in a kingdom
a person during the French Revolution who wanted to have justice, equality, and freedoms such as freedom of speech.
A nickname for Louis XIV that captures the magnificence of his court and of the Palace of Versailles, which he built. Louis himself adopted the sun as his emblem.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
the document written by the national assembly, that stated and defined the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity.
Committee of Public Safety
Established and led by Robespierre. Originally was formed to help fix some local problems, such as shortage of bread, riots, and other problems that occurred in the towns. Eventually became a secret police that told off anyone who disobeyed the new rules. For example, calling a person madame, monsieur, or mademoiselle instead of citizen and citizeness.
La Petit Trianon
a small mansion given to Marie Antoinette by Louis XVI. It was surrounded by a small peasant village so she could act like a peasant. This enraged the Third Estate.
"Let them eat cake!"
This was supposedly said by Marie Antoinette when the third estate needed bread desperately, but couldn't afford it. Cake wasn't sweet, it was actually the burnt crumbs on the bottom of the oven that were mashed into a patty.
Hall of Mirrors
most famous hall in Versailles. It had seventeen mirrors on one side, and windows on the other that looked out to the garden. At night, chandeliers were lit with 32 candles.
The name given to the law-making body of France after the Constitution of 1791; it could create laws and approve or prevent any war that the king declared on other nations. It limited the kings powers.
wrote Social Contract; advocate of individual freedom and democracy; "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains."; maintained that humans were naturally happy and possessed natural rights, the people created government as a necessary evil to carry out the General Will, and if the government failed in its purpose, the people have the right to overthrow and replace it; claimed that the government has unlimited power to enforce General Will
Fought for the freedom of thought, spoke exactly what he was thinking, offended the government and the Catholic Church and was exiled because of it
King Louis XIV
King of France, ruled for 72 years, built the palace of Versailles, absolute monarch, believed in the divine right of kings, The "Sun King"
King Louis XV
ineffective, more interested in having fun than helping his country. drove France even farther into debt.
King Louis XVI
absolute monarch of France at the start of the French Revolution. Contributed even more to France's debt after spoiling Marie Antoinette and aiding the U.S. in the Revolutionary War in hope of humiliating England. After yielding power to the revolutionary National Assembly, he was overthrown when the French Republic was declared and then executed, along with his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette, during the Reign of Terror.
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband. She was from Austria.
financial expert of Louis XVI, he advised Louis to reduce court spending, reform his government, abolish tarriffs on internal trade, but the First and Second Estates got him fired. This started the storming of the Bastille, because the Third Estate felt he was the sole say in government on their behalf.
Bernard de Launay
governor of the Bastille that was beheaded during the storming of the Bastille. His head was paraded around on a pike.
very radical French revolutionary party responsible for Reign of Terror and execution of king. They wanted a republic.
Radical leader, used scientific research to support his case to oust the monarchy. He wrote fiery editorials where he called for many executions. He was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday while he was taking a bath.
general; Emperor of France; he seized power in 1799; he led French armies in conquering much of Europe, placing his relatives in positions of power. After he lead much of the French army to death and starvation, he was exiled to Elba. He came back to France, and was oddly allowed to lead the army into the battle of Waterloo, but was exiled once again when half the army was killed.
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revoltion. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
July 14, 1789
the storming of the Bastille, when a mob stole weapons from the armory, killing guards. when Louis didn't defend it, it showed how little power he had. This marked the start of the French Revolution.
Life at Versailles
The king insisted that some of the most powerful nobles live at least part of the year at Versailles. These nobles became dependent on the king and turned into idle, corrupt flatterers, gamblers, and gossips. Small quarters.
Meeting of the Estates-General
Meeting of three estates called by king Louis XVI in an effort to control the finances of France. Each estate had one vote, so usually the 1st and 2nd estates easily won any dispute with the 3rd estate. This lead the third estate to want to rebel and create a new version of the Estates-General.
Creation of the National Assembly
delegates from the 3rd estate invited the members of the 1st estate to join them in bringing about change. The 3rd estate represented 98% of the population and represented the whole nation. They agreed to be called the National Assembly.
Tennis Court Oath
Declaration mainly by members of the Third Estate ( and some first estate) not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789).
Storming the Bastille
July 14th, 1789. There had been a rumor that the king had been planning a military coup against the national Assembly. The people decided to defend their city and marched to the Bastille prison for gunpowder. The governor of the prison refused them, so they fought until the prison surrendered and the governor was dead. This saved the National Assembly. Is now called the "Bastille Day" and is France's Independence Day. Beginning of the French Revolution.
The Great Fear
Rural (in the country) unrest had been present in France since the worsening grain shortage of the spring, and the grain supplies were now guarded by local militias as rumors that bands of armed men were roaming the countryside spread. In response, fearful peasants armed themselves in self-defense and, in some areas, attacked manor houses.
Executions of King Louis and Marie Antoinette
They were found guilty of being traitors and sent to the guillotine.
Fish ladies march on Versailles
Women (from the 3rd Estate) marched on Versailles and demanded bread! They brought the king and his family back to Paris.
Reign of Terror
When Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety had over 40,000 people executed for suspected treason. Anyone suspected of being against the revolution was tried and executed.
Napoleon's rise to power
1. In 1795 an army of royalists threatened the palace where the National Convention met. He saved the palace.
2. In 1796 the Directory appointed Bonaparte to command a French army, he wins and becomes one of the most famous and respected generals.
3. By 1799 the directory had lost the confidence of the French people. Napoleon takes over as Emperor (coup d' etat).
End of French Revolution
November 9, 1799. People lost faith in the Directory and Napoleon forced the National Legislature to end the Directory and turn over the government to three consuls of whom he was one. Later Napoleon would become Emperor of France.
Reforms of the Catholic Church
The government took over the lands of the Catholic Church and sold them to pay off its heavy debts. Clergy had to be elected by the voters and were paid by the state.
American Revolution (and its impact on France)
The success of the U.S. made the desire for liberty burn more brightly. The French desired reform even more. The cost of helping the U.S. put France into even greater debt which meant higher taxes! The higher taxes helped fuel the revolution also.