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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. oval window
  2. first-order neurons
  3. ESPS
  4. synaptotagmin
  5. goldman equation
  1. a - used to calculate membrane potential
    - assumes that electrical field of the membrane potential is equal across the span of the membrane
  2. b - needed for vesicle exocytosis
    - a protein with 2 binding sites for calcium that trigger the vesicle fusion once calcium has entered throught the voltage sensitive calcium channel
    - binds the core complex
    - binds calcium
    - calcium sensor
  3. c - depolarization of the post-synaptic membrane caused by the neurotransmitter brings the membrane potential close to the threshold for firing an ap
    - influx of Na or Ca
  4. d - connection of middle ear stapes bone with opening of cochlea
    - flexible membrane
  5. e - has the sensory receptor
    - innervates skin by right & left dorsal roots of a single spinal segment

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. - encoded by rate of firing and # of active neurons
    - the greater the amplitude wave, the greater distance along basilar membrane that moves - activate more hair cells and more SGNs
  2. - carry out immune function
    - function as phagocytes to remove debris left by dead or degenerate neuron and glia
  3. - involved in vision
  4. - needed to trigger the ap
    - opens K channels
  5. - synaptic transmission that causes transcient hyperpolarization of the post synaptic neuron
    - decreases the probability that the ppost synaptic neuron will fire an action potential

5 True/False Questions

  1. goldman- main IPSP in brain
    - precursor: glutmate, pryuvate, glucose
    - made by GAD (requires vitamin B6)
    - most common inhibitory NT in CNS
    - gates Cl- channels
    - barbiturates (sleeping pills): increase duration
    - benzodiazephines ( tranqualize): increase frequency


  2. myelin- facilitates current flow of ap
    - has high capacitance so the membrane stores charges and ions do not move acress the membrane


  3. changes in ion permeability- allows inward Na flux and triggers an increased outward K flux through voltage gated ion channels
    - causes transient changes in membrane potential
    - triggered by transient depolarization of the membrane


  4. neurons with membranes that have a long time constant- exocytosis
    1. presynaptic ap
    2. deoplarization of synamtic terminal
    - released by the first neuron at the presynaptic terminal, release site: active zone
    - triggered by the arrival of an ap in the axon terminal
    - released nt is bounded by the second neuron at the postsynaptic membrane
    - leads to transient depolarizaton of the membrane


  5. antagonist- in CNS
    - makes bbb
    - "clean up system" of the brain
    - most numerous glie in the brain
    - regulates the chemical content of extracellular space
    - two types
    -> protoplasmic; found in grey matter
    -> fibrous; found in white matter


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