Social Studies- Ch. 12 Europe- 4 Regions

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4 Regions:

-Northern Europe
-Central Europe
-Southern Europe
-Eastern Europe

Northern Europe:

7 Countries:
-Iceland
-United Kingdom
-Ireland
-Norway
-Sweden
-Finland
-Denmark

E.U- European Union-

27 countries, 1 standardized system, share same currency, laws for better trade, flow of goods.
-ex: the "euro" for $, no conversion
- franc (French), mark (German)

United Kingdom (UK):

England
Scotland
Whales
Northern Ireland
-"Chunnel 1"
-underwater train between UK and France
-"The Underground"- subway system
-Palace at Westminster- Houses of Parliament in London, England
-Big Ben- clock/bell tower
-London Eye- Western Hemisphere's largest ferris wheel
-Constitutional Monarchy- King & Queen, symbolic, tradition
-UK, Sweden, Denmark, Norway only
-Parliament Democracy- voters elect Parliament (govt. that makes law)
-London- UK capitol
-Scotland- bagpipes bigger exporter: Pakistan Middle East origin
-Loch Ness (a bay, fjord)

Ireland:

-Divided-
-Catholics- want to be Independent "Nationalists"
-Protests- be part of UK, "Unionists" most of UK
-Bloody Sunday- civil rights protest, unarmed citizens shot by British
-Emerald Isle- mild/rainy due to the wester lease (wind that carries warm gulf waters north)
-Bogs- swamps, land filled with peat
-Peat- pians decaying in water, burned for fuel
-Irish Potato Famine:
-potato crops failed from blight (dea seas)
- 1845-1852
-mass starvation
-many immigrated Ireland
-St. Patrick choose shamrock as symbol for the Trinity: (God/Father, Jesus/Son, and Holy Spirit)

Scandanavia-

Iceland/Norway/Sweden/Finland/Denmark...
-high standards of living because it has mixed economy

Finland:

culture differs from Scandinavian countries because ancestors came from Russia (Siberia) not from Germanic tribes (Central Europe)

Iceland-

"Land of Fire and Ice". active volcanoes & glaciers on 2 tectonic plates moving apart
-Geysers- springs that shoot up hot water & steam
geysers in U.S- Yellowstone National Park
-The Blue Lagoon: geothermal energy produced by steam underground
-Vikings- early settlers
-Aurora Borealis- "Northern Lights"- solar electrolights interact with atmosphere

Norway:

- Norwegian Stave churches- post & beam construction, made out of wood
- Fjords- sea filled canyons (like a bay/inlet/straight) supplies fish

Sweden:

-Ice Hotel- rebuilt every year, made entirely of ice
-Subway systems- like an art gallery

Denmark:

-Copenhagen: (capitol) Trading center b/c Baltic Sea is too shallow for ships
-Little Mermaid: Hans Christian Anderson- author
-Biking- main transportation in Denmark

Central Europe:

France Germany
Benelux Countries- Alpine Countries-
-Belgium -Switzerland
-Netherlands -Austria
-Luxembourg -Liechtenstein
~culture ~mountainous
~agriculture ~strong economy
~industry ~high standards of living

Southern Europe:

Portugal
Spain
Italy
Greece

Spain:

-located on the Iberian Peninsula
-capitol- Madrid
-covered by Meseta:a dry plateau surrounded by mountain ranges
-Dry Farming: land left unplanted every few years so it can store moisture
-before 1970's- Dictator
-after 1970's- Democracy
-Regions of Spain have autonomy (self rule) now
-Basque Region... wants to be it's own country
-Basque ppl speak Euskera
-lang. not related to any other in world
-Government:
-Constitutional Monarchy
-King/Prime Minister
-Parliament
-Religion:
-95% Catholic
-Food:
-healthy- lots of seafood
-tortilla español
-kids go home for lunch
-later dinner (8-9 pm)
-world leader in olive oil & wine
-Transportation:
-mopeds (younger ppl)
-cars too
-Fiesta San Fermin (July) Running of the Bulls
-Pamplona festival/party
-Bulls run through streets
-Bull fighting
-Fireworks
-Traditional Bullfighting

Portugal:

-Capitol- Lisbon
-Land- low costal plain
-good farming
-lots of ppl fish for living
-Most ppl live on the coast
-Government-
-Democracy
-President/Prime Minister
-3 branches of Gov.
-Language:
-Portuguese
-English taught in 1st grade and other by 7th

Italy:

-Capitol- Rome
-In northern alps cover broad Lombardy plain
-in central/southern, Apennine Mts. form backbone & stretches into Sicily
-volcanoes dot landscape & earthquakes/volcanic eruptions are common in history
-Economy- in mid 1990's, changed from mainly agriculture to leading industrial economy
-Most growth's in north; products such as technical inst, appliances, clothing, and high-quality goods
-Po River valley is richest farming region (livestock, grapes, olives, other crops)
-Southern Italy- poor, less industrialized
-many seek better life in the north
-Many and most speak Italian
-nearly all are Roman Catholic
-Church leaders, (the pope) live in the Vatican City- smallest country in the world (110 acres)
-Government:
-Democracy
-President- 7 years
- Prime Minister
-School:
-Saturdays
-no activities
-hang out; piazzas
-dog parking stations

Greece:

-Land- with mainland (located on Balkan Peninsula, named after Balkan Mts) has 2,000 islands
-mountainous; poor, stony soil; many earthquakes
-in highlands, ppl raise sheep/goats
-on plains, olives, wheat and other crops are grown
-Economy- developed new industries; textiles, footwear, & chemicals
-Shipping is major business
-world's largest shipping fleet
-Tourism is another key industry
-People- 60% are urban dwellers
-nearly 1/3 live in/around Athens, capitol
-Speak a similar lang. to ancient times
-most are Greek Orthodox Christians
-Part of democratic republic and member of the EU

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