Test 4

Created by edgeman101 

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A starving rat will lose all interest in food if its ________ is destroyed.
A) lateral thalamus
B) ventromedial thalamus
C) lateral hypothalamus
D) ventromedial hypothalamus

C) lateral hypothalamus

The secretion of PYY _________ hunger and the secretion of orexin ________ hunger.
A) increases; decreases
B) decreases; increases
C) increases; increases
D) decreases; decreases

B) decreases; increases

An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting is his or her
A) self-esteem.
B) personality.
C) reality principle.
D) self-serving bias.

B) personality

Free association is central to the process of
A) factor analysis.
B) self-serving bias.
C) psychoanalysis.
D) reciprocal determinism.

C) psychoanalysis.

According to Freud, the unconscious is
A) the part of personality that cannot process information.
B) the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware.
C) a set of universal concepts acquired by all humans from our common past.
D) a reservoir of deeply repressed memories that does not affect behavior.

B) the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware.

According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the
A) id.
B) ego.
C) superego.
D) erogenous zones.

A) id

Ego is to id as ________ is to ________.
A) unconscious; conscious
B) biology; morality
C) reality principle; pleasure principle
D) regression; repression

C) reality principle; pleasure principle

According to Freud, the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the
A) Oedipus complex.
B) ego.
C) id.
D) superego.

D) superego.

According to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the
A) id to defend against the accusations and guilt feelings produced by the superego.
B) ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized.
C) superego when it says "I'm right!"
D) id, ego, and superego in a repetitive sequence of internal conflicts.

B) ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized

Alfred Adler was a neo-Freudian who coined the term
A) oral fixation.
B) collective unconscious.
C) inferiority complex.
D) latent content.

C) inferiority complex.

Carl Jung referred to a shared reservoir of memory traces from our species history as the
A) self-reference phenomenon.
B) defense mechanism.
C) collective unconscious

C) collective unconscious

The Thematic Apperception Test is a(n)
A) analytic test.
B) projective test.
C) personality inventory.
D) empirically derived test.

B) projective test

The famous test introduced by Hermann Rorschach asks test-takers to respond to
A) frightening pictures.
B) ambiguous stories.
C) meaningless inkblots.
D) incomplete sentences.

C) meaningless inkblots

Freud's theory of personality has been criticized because it
A) underestimates the importance of biological contributions to personality development.
B) is contradicted by recent research demonstrating the human capacity for destructive behavior.
C) is overly reliant upon observations derived from Freud's use of projective tests.
D) offers few testable hypotheses that allow one to determine its validity.

D) offers few testable hypotheses that allow one to determine its validity.

The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of
A) projective tests.
B) self-determination.
C) conditional positive regard.
D) objective analysis

B) self-determination

Which theorist emphasized that an individual's personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic?
A) Maslow
B) Rogers
C) Freud
D) Skinner

B) Rogers

Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as
A) the spotlight effect.
B) unconditional positive regard.
C) self-actualization.
D) a peak experience.

B) unconditional positive regard.

Carl Rogers suggested that ________ is(are) a central feature of personality.
A) the unconscious
B) self-transcendence
C) base motives
D) the self-concept

D) the self-concept

Carl Rogers would have suggested that many of the defense mechanisms described by Freud are used to minimize the perceived discrepancy between
A) manifest content and latent content.
B) the collective unconscious and the personal unconscious.
C) the actual self and the ideal self.
D) an internal sense of control and an external sense of control.

C) the actual self and the ideal self.

Which psychologists are most likely to criticize standardized personality tests for failing to capture the unique subjective experience of the individual personality?
A) psychoanalytic theorists
B) trait theorists
C) social-cognitive theorists
D) humanistic theorists

D) humanistic theorists

Which of the following have been criticized the most for offering concepts that are vague and subjective?
A) behaviorists
B) humanistic theorists
C) personality theorists
D) Freudian theorists

B) humanistic theorists

Humanistic psychologists would most likely be criticized for underestimating the value of
A) an internal sense of control.
B) self-serving bias.
C) social obligations.
D) individualism.

C) social obligations

Characteristic patterns of behavior and conscious motives are called
A) dimensions.
B) fixations.
C) projections.
D) traits.

D) traits.

Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than with ________ it.
A) predicting; assessing
B) describing; explaining
C) changing; analyzing
D) interpreting; observing

B) describing; explaining

Coretta is quiet, pessimistic, anxious, and moody. In terms of the Eysencks' basic personality dimensions she would be classified as
A) unstable-introverted.
B) manic-depressive.
C) external-dependent.
D) passive-aggressive.

A) unstable-introverted

A frontal lobe area involved in ________ is ________ active in extraverts than in introverts.
A) restraining behavior; less
B) addictive cravings; more
C) empathy; less
D) aggression; more

A) restraining behavior; less

People respond to stress with greater anxiety if they have
A) a weak superego.
B) an internal locus of control.
C) positive character traits.
D) a reactive autonomic nervous system.

D) a reactive autonomic nervous system.

Activation of the sympathetic nervous system
A) increases salivation and increases blood pressure.
B) decreases salivation and decreases blood pressure.
C) increases salivation and decreases blood pressure.
D) decreases salivation and increases blood pressure

D) decreases salivation and increases blood pressure

If people who have just been aroused by watching rock videos are then insulted, their feelings of anger will be greater than those of people who have been similarly provoked but were not previously aroused. This is best explained by the
A) James-Lange theory.
B) Cannon-Bard theory.
C) spillover effect.
D) two-factor theory.

D) two-factor theory.

The instantaneous and automatic fear response we experience when unexpectedly stumbling upon a snake illustrates the importance of the
A) amygdala.
B) hypothalamus.
C) pituitary gland.
D) hippocampus.

A) amygdala

Exuberant infants and alert, energetic adults are especially likely to show high levels of brain activity in the
A) limbic system.
B) sensory cortex.
C) cerebellum.
D) left frontal lobe.

D) left frontal lobe.

Emotions consist of which of the following components?
A) physiological reactions
B) behavioral expressions
C) conscious feelings
D) all of these components

D) all of these components

Which theory of emotion implies that every emotion is associated with a unique physiological reaction?
A) James-Lange theory
B) Cannon-Bard theory
C) two-factor theory
D) Schachter-Singer theory

A) James-Lange theory

You are on your way to school to take a big exam. Suddenly, on noticing that your pulse is racing and that you are sweating, you feel nervous. With which theory of emotion is this experience most consistent?
A) Cannon-Bard theory
B) James-Lange theory
C) two-factor theory
D) cognitive theory

B) James-Lange theory

Schachter's and Singer's two-factor theory emphasizes that emotion involves both
A) the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the nervous system.
B) verbal and nonverbal expression.
C) physical arousal and a cognitive label.
D) universal and culture-specific aspects.

C) physical arousal and a cognitive label.

Which division of the nervous system is especially involved in bringing about emotional arousal?
A) somatic nervous system
B) peripheral nervous system
C) sympathetic nervous system
D) parasympathetic nervous system

C) sympathetic nervous system

Which of the following most accurately describes emotional arousal?
A) Emotions prepare the body to fight or flee.
B) Emotions are voluntary reactions to emotion-arousing stimuli.
C) Because all emotions have the same physiological basis, emotions are primarily psychological events.
D) Emotional arousal is always accompanied by cognition.

A) Emotions prepare the body to fight or flee

In an emergency situation, emotional arousal will result in
A) increased rate of respiration.
B) increased blood sugar.
C) a slowing of digestion.
D) all of these events.

D) all of these events.

After Brenda scolded her brother for forgetting to pick her up from school, the physical arousal that had accompanied her anger diminished. Which division of her nervous system mediated her physical relaxation?
A) sympathetic division
B) parasympathetic division
C) somatic division
D) peripheral nervous system

B) parasympathetic division

In laboratory experiments, fear and joy
A) result in an increase in heart rate.
B) stimulate different facial muscles.
C) increase heart rate and stimulate different facial muscles.
D) result in a decrease in heart rate.

C) increase heart rate and stimulate different facial muscles.

People who are exuberant and persistently cheerful show increased activity in the brain's ________, which is rich in receptors for the neurotransmitter ________.
A) right frontal lobe; dopamine
B) left frontal lobe; dopamine
C) amygdala; serotonin
D) thalamus; serotonin

B) left frontal lobe; dopamine

Which of the following was NOT raised as a criticism of the James-Lange theory of emotion?
A) The body's responses are too similar to trigger the various emotions.
B) Emotional reactions occur before the body's responses can take place.
C) The cognitive activity of the cortex plays a role in the emotions we experience.
D) People with spinal cord injuries at the neck typically experience less emotion.

D) People with spinal cord injuries at the neck typically experience less emotion

In the Schachter-Singer experiment, which college men reported feeling an emotional change in the presence of the experimenter's highly emotional confederate?
A) those receiving epinephrine and expecting to feel physical arousal
B) those receiving a placebo and expecting to feel physical arousal
C) those receiving epinephrine but not expecting to feel physical arousal
D) those receiving a placebo and not expecting to feel physical arousal

C) those receiving epinephrine but not expecting to feel physical arousal

Research with subliminally flashed stimuli supports Robert Zajonc's view that
A) the heart is always subject to the mind.
B) emotional reactions involve deliberate rational thinking.
C) cognition is not necessary for emotion.
D) responding to a subliminal stimulus is a learned skill.

C) cognition is not necessary for emotion

The Cannon-Bard theory of emotion states that
A) emotions have two ingredients: physical arousal and a cognitive label.
B) the conscious experience of an emotion occurs at the same time as the body's physical reaction.
C) emotional experiences are based on an awareness of the body's responses to an emotion-arousing stimulus.
D) emotional ups and downs tend to balance in the long run.

B) the conscious experience of an emotion occurs at the same time as the body's physical reaction.

Chiana and her husband both want to feel and express greater warmth and affection for each other. They would be advised to spend time looking intently at one another's
A) eyes.
B) lips.
C) hand gestures.
D) body postures.

A) eyes.

By exposing different parts of emotion-laden faces, researchers found that we detect anger mostly from the ________ and happiness mostly from the ________.
A) eyes; mouth
B) mouth; eyes
C) eyes; eyes
D) mouth; mouth

A) eyes; mouth

Compared with men, women are ________ effective in discerning whether someone is telling a lie, and they are ________ effective in discerning which of two people in a photo is the other's supervisor.
A) more; less
B) less; more
C) more; more
D) less; less

C) more; more

In which country are people most likely to convey visible facial expressions of their inner feelings?
A) China
B) Australia
C) Japan
D) India

B) Australia

If you mimic another person's facial expressions of emotion, you probably will feel increasing empathy for that person. This is best explained in terms of
A) evolutionary adaptiveness.
B) physiological arousal.
C) the James-Lange theory.
D) the spillover effect

C) the James-Lange theory.

Feigned smiles are initiated ________ abruptly and last for a ________ time than genuine smiles.
A) more; shorter
B) less; longer
C) more; longer
D) less; shorter

C) more; longer

The most universally understood way of expressing emotion is through
A) hand gestures.
B) body postures.
C) facial expressions.
D) tone of voice.

C) facial expressions.

Women show ________ facial expression of emotion than men while viewing frightening films, and they show ________ facial expression of emotion than men while viewing happy films.
A) more; less
B) more; more
C) less; more
D) less; less

B) more; more

The facial expressions associated with particular emotions are
A) learned in early childhood.
B) different in Eastern and Western cultures.
C) the same throughout the world.
D) more similar in adults than they are in children or adolescents.

C) the same throughout the world

If people wrinkle their noses in disgust when presented with a strange-looking food, they are likely to experience an increasingly intense emotional aversion to the food. This best illustrates the
A) Cannon-Bard theory.
B) relative deprivation principle.
C) feel-good, do-good phenomenon.
D) facial feedback effect.

D) facial feedback effect

Most young children are fearful of bees, even though they have never been stung by one. This best illustrates that fear
A) is a maladaptive response.
B) can be learned through observation.
C) is genetically determined.
D) results from relative deprivation.

B) can be learned through observation.

Luciano believes that the best way to get over the anger he feels toward his high school teacher is to scream shameful profanities while hitting a punching bag. His belief best illustrates
A) relative deprivation.
B) the adaptation-level phenomenon.
C) the catharsis hypothesis.
D) positive psychology.

C) the catharsis hypothesis.

After receiving exciting news about the birth of a healthy grandson, Mr. Haney was easily persuaded to contribute a generous sum of money to a neighborhood church. This best illustrates the
A) two-factor theory.
B) adaptation-level phenomenon.
C) James-Lange theory.
D) feel-good, do-good phenomenon.

D) feel-good, do-good phenomenon.

Enjoying your second piece of pie less than your first illustrates
A) the spillover effect.
B) relative deprivation.
C) catharsis.
D) the diminishing returns phenomenon.

D) the diminishing returns phenomenon.

Professor Crane was ecstatic when he learned that his research study had been approved for publication. His feelings of joy quickly dissipated, however, when he heard a colleague recently had three different research articles accepted for publication. His declining emotional satisfaction is best explained in terms of
A) the facial feedback effect.
B) relative deprivation.
C) the James-Lange theory.
D) the adaptation-level phenomenon.

B) relative deprivation.

Individual differences in temperament suggest that the experience of fear is influenced by
A) relative deprivation.
B) adaptation level.
C) genetic predispositions.
D) catharsis.

C) genetic predispositions

Verbal and nonverbal expressions of anger can
A) calm emotions and reduce anger.
B) become habitual if they successfully reduce anger.
C) increase immediate feelings of anger.
D) do any of these things.

D) do any of these things

After receiving an unexpected A on his psychology test, Jordan was easily persuaded to baby-sit his little sister while his parents went out for dinner. This best illustrates the
A) adaptation-level phenomenon.
B) feel-good, do-good phenomenon.
C) relative deprivation principle.
D) behavior feedback effect

B) feel-good, do-good phenomenon.

A celebrity actress experiences ever-increasing levels of professional acclaim following each successful movie role. Yet with each success, she experiences no more than a temporary surge of subjective well-being. This is best explained in terms of the
A) catharsis hypothesis.
B) James-Lange theory.
C) two-factor theory.
D) adaptation-level phenomenon.

D) adaptation-level phenomenon.

After imagining and then writing about various tragedies, such as people being burned and disfigured, university women expressed increased
A) fear.
B) anger.
C) depression.
D) subjective well-being.

D) subjective well-being.

Scientists have isolated a gene that influences the amygdala's response to frightening situations. People with a short version of this gene have high levels of ________ available to activate amygdala neurons.
A) serotonin
B) dopamine
C) acetylcholine
D) endorphins

A) serotonin

The term catharsis refers to emotional
A) disturbance.
B) inhibition.
C) release.
D) adaptation.

C) release

Rosaria is upset with her husband for not putting his dirty clothes in the laundry basket. Anger experts would most likely recommend that she deal with her frustration by saying to him
A) "I'm not your mother. Take some responsibility."
B) "From now on I'm going to leave my dirty clothes around for you to pick up."
C) "It annoys me that you leave your dirty clothes for me to pick up."
D) "I refuse to make dinner until you do the laundry.

C) "It annoys me that you leave your dirty clothes for me to pick up."

The feel-good, do-good phenomenon refers to the fact that when people feel happy they
A) are more willing to help others.
B) make decisions more effectively.
C) experience a more positive self-image.
D) report greater satisfaction with their whole lives.

A) are more willing to help others.

People's moment-to-moment positive moods tend to be highest near the ________ hours of their waking day and their moment-to-moment negative moods tend to be highest near the ________ hours of their waking day.
A) later; earlier
B) middle; later
C) later; middle
D) early; middle

B) middle; later

One way for people to improve their own subjective well-being is to
A) focus more attention on themselves.
B) participate in regular aerobic exercise.
C) overestimate how much they can accomplish.
D) do all of these things.

B) participate in regular aerobic exercise

Which of the following factors has been found to be clearly related to feelings of general happiness or life satisfaction?
A) being well educated
B) having children
C) having a meaningful religious faith
D) being physically attractive

C) having a meaningful religious faith

A general sense of happiness or life satisfaction is most unrelated to whether people
A) sleep well.
B) are well educated.
C) have a happy marriage.
D) have a meaningful religious faith.

B) are well educated

Psychiatrists and psychologists label behavior as disordered when it is
A) aggressive, persistent, and intentional.
B) selfish, habitual, and avoidable.
C) deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional.
D) biologically influenced, unconsciously motivated, and difficult to change.

C) deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional

Ongoing patterns of behavior that are different from those of most other people in your culture are best characterized as
A) deviant.
B) disinhibiting.
C) dysfunctional.
D) disorganized.

A) deviant

Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are major symptoms of
A) schizophrenia.
B) depression.
C) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
D) anorexia.

C) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Larry has difficulty organizing his daily schedule of work responsibilities. He often makes careless mistakes or fails to complete his work because he is easily distracted. Larry's behavior is most characteristic of
A) schizophrenia.
B) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
C) anxiety disorder.
D) obsessive-compulsive disorder.

B) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

ADHD is diagnosed ________ often in girls than in boys. In the decade after 1987, a(n) ________ proportion of American children have been treated for this disorder.
A) more; increasing
B) less; decreasing
C) more; decreasing
D) less; increasing

D) less; increasing

Individuals diagnosed with ________ experience a normal but delayed thinning of the frontal cerebral cortex.
A) depression
B) anorexia nervosa
C) anxiety disorder
D) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

D) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

The greatest shortcoming associated with explanations of psychological disorders in terms of demon possession is that these explanations
A) were relevant only to severe disorders such as schizophrenia.
B) encouraged many to believe there was no such thing as insanity.
C) led to some harsh and ineffective remedial treatments.
D) absolved people of personal responsibility for their own behavior.

C) led to some harsh and ineffective remedial treatments

According to the medical model, psychological disorders are
A) sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured.
B) maladaptive responses to a troubling environment.
C) purely imaginary symptoms of distress.
D) learned habits that need to be extinguished.

A) sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured.

The discovery that psychologically disordered behavior could result from syphilis infections facilitated the credibility and acceptance of
A) psychoanalytic theory.
B) the medical model.
C) DSM-IV-TR.
D) the social-cognitive perspective.

B) the medical model.

The medical model of psychologically disordered behavior is most likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of
A) social circumstances and psychological factors.
B) biological evolution.
C) the DSM-IV-TR.
D) genetically influenced abnormalities.

A) social circumstances and psychological factors.

It would be most difficult to use the ________ to explain why anorexia nervosa occurs mostly in Western cultures.
A) learning perspective
B) medical model
C) social-cognitive perspective
D) biopsychosocial approach

B) medical model

Some psychological disorders occur primarily in one culture. However, ________ occurs worldwide.
A) taijin-kyo fusho
B) anorexia nervosa
C) schizophrenia
D) susto

C) schizophrenia

Both the inseparability of mind and body and the interaction of nature and nurture are most clearly emphasized by
A) DSM-IV-TR.
B) the medical model.
C) the learning perspective.
D) the biopsychosocial approach.

D) the biopsychosocial approach.

Professor McIntosh emphasizes that depression often involves the interactive influences of self-focused rumination, rejection from others, and low serotonin levels. The professor's emphasis best illustrates
A) the medical model.
B) the learning perspective.
C) the "un-DSM."
D) a biopsychosocial approach.

D) a biopsychosocial approach

The DSM-IV-TR does NOT
A) include a classification of personality disorders.
B) explain the causes of the various psychological disorders.
C) include a very broad range of psychological disorders.
D) provide reliable guidelines for diagnosing psychological disorders

B) explain the causes of the various psychological disorders.

Many clinicians diagnose disorders by answering questions from five levels of the
A) MDMA.
B) DSM-IV-TR.
C) PTSD.
D) THC.

B) DSM-IV-TR

DSM-IV-TR focuses on clinicians' reports of observable behavior in order to
A) facilitate the reliability of diagnoses.
B) shorten the time it takes to make a diagnosis.
C) avoid invading clients' psychological privacy.
D) reduce the need for medical terminology in psychological assessments.

A) facilitate the reliability of diagnoses.

DSM-IV-TR is most likely to be criticized for
A) attempting to explain behavior by simply labeling it.
B) classifying an excessively broad range of human behaviors as psychologically disordered.
C) failing to base diagnoses on observable behaviors.
D) inhibiting scientific efforts to discover the underlying causes of psychological disorders.

B) classifying an excessively broad range of human behaviors as psychologically disordered

One facet of the positive psychology movement has been the introduction of a classification system designed to aid in the process of
A) assessing human strengths.
B) explaining psychological disorders.
C) reducing current reliance on the DSM-IV-TR.
D) shortening the time it takes to classify psychological disorders.

A) assessing human strengths.

A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often
A) bias our perceptions of the labeled person.
B) represent attempts by psychologists to explain behavior by simply naming it.
C) interfere with effective research on the causes of these disorders.
D) interfere with effective treatment of these disorders.

A) bias our perceptions of the labeled person.

When children are told that certain classmates have learning disabilities, they may behave in ways that inhibit the success of those students in the classroom. This best illustrates the dangers of
A) the medical model.
B) the biopsychosocial approach.
C) self-fulfilling prophecies.
D) the psychoanalytic perspective.

C) self-fulfilling prophecies

The ability of mental health professionals to quickly communicate the characteristics of their patients' complex symptoms is most clearly facilitated by the use of
A) psychoanalytic theory.
B) diagnostic labels.
C) the medical model.
D) the biopsychosocial approach.

B) diagnostic labels.

A deluded Scotsman, Daniel M'Naughten, tried to assassinate a government official in 1843. He was sent to a mental hospital rather than to a prison because he was judged to
A) have schizophrenia.
B) be depressed.
C) be manic.
D) be insane

D) be insane.

A World Health Organization study of 20 countries estimated that ________ had the highest prevalence of mental disorders during the prior year.
A) Japan
B) Germany
C) Mexico
D) the United States

D) the United States

Among women, the stresses and demoralization of poverty are especially likely to precipitate
A) ADHD.
B) depression.
C) schizophrenia.
D) anorexia.

B) depression

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