Wine class

Created by danjeong14 

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Final

In the earliest, ancient Mediterranean civilizations wine was the first drink of the common citizen

FALSE

Scholars who have studied the origins of alcohol abuse agree that the Americans pattern of prohibiting exposure to alcoholic beverages until age 21 is one of the most effective ways to prevent alcohol abuse

FALSE

Demographic studies have shown that wine drinkers are better educated and earn more than non-wine drinkers

TRUE

At what blood alcohol concentration do most people perceive the maximum relaxation

.05%

Wine provides about how many calories per four-ounce serving?

100

Although wine has a 4000-year history of therapeutic use it is not considered useful in today's hospital setting in the U.S.

FALSE

The people who should be most concerned about sulfites in wines are sulfite-sensitive, steroid-dependent asthmatics.

True

Medical researches define moderate alcohol consumption as about how many four ounce glasses of wine daily?

1-2

The research reviewed by Dr. Keith Marton showed that cardiovascular mortality increased with heavy alcohol use and that moderate drinkers have a reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality compared to non-drinkers.

TRUE

Boffetta's and Garfinkel's study showed that at three or more drinks per day there is an increased risk of death for drinkers compared to non-drinkers, particularly for liver cirrhosis

TRUE

Although Dr. Marton's review of the research literature showed a 50% increase in breast cancer for moderate drinkers compared to non-drinkers, there are a number of reasons why our understanding of the relationship between moderate drinking and breast cancer is less certain than it is for cardiovascular disease.

TRUE

About 90% of women who are active alcoholics during pregnancy will deliver a child who clearly suffers from Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

FALSE

White varietal wine on the list with the strongest flavor.

Gewurztraminer

White varietal wine on the list with the weakest flavor

Chenin Blanc

White varietal wine whose grapes predominate in the vineyards of the Rhine and Mosel valleys of Germany

White (Johannesburg) Riesling

White varietal wine most likely to be fermented and aged in oak

Chardonnay

White varietal wine whose neutral-flavored grapes are highly susceptible to Botrytis cinerea.

Chenin Blanc

White varietal wine whose grapes are used to make Champagne and White Burgundy wines in France

Chardonnay

Aroma and flavor descriptors for this white varietal wine include bell pepper, green olive, and herbaceous.

Sauvignon Blanc

White varietal wine blended with Semillon to make Sauternes-style, Botrytis-affected late-harvest wines.

Sauvignon Blanc

Grapes for this white varietal wine rank with French Colombard as one of the most commonly planted varieties in California.

Chardonnay

You would have to pay the highest price per ton for grapes to make this white varietal wine.

Chardonnay

Dry white varietal wine most likely to improve with bottle aging.

Chardonnay

White varietal wine who's wines acquire "subtle, oily scents" as they age.

White (Johannesburg) Riesling

Under appearance, the bubble display of sparking wines is evaluated and tasters look for small bubbles that evolve from the wine over a long time and form a smooth, white foam on the surface of the wine.

TRUE

Because they're called Blanc de Noirs, we expect all sparkling wines made from red grapes to be white, that is a very pale straw yellow to yellow color.

FALSE

When the sparkling wine aroma wheel is compared to the more general wine aroma wheel, we find more spicy floral, and fruity odors suggested for sparkling wines and fewer vegetative and herbaceous odors.

TRUE

Which spice would you not expect to find in sparkling wines but would be anticipated in (red) table wines?

Black Pepper

Descriptive terms for champagne bouquet would be found in all but which one of these categories on the sparkling wine aroma wheel?

Fruity.

If you come upon a group of winetasters uttering the descriptive terms "fresh bread, sour cream, burnt chocolate, cocoa, hazelnut, and toasted grains," you have probably stumbled onto a tasting of tank-fermented sparkling wines.

False

Among the positive structural organoleptic elements of sparkling wines are tart acidity, soft finish, freshness, and dryness.

True

Perception refers to an organism's immediate neurological Response to a stimulus in the environment.

False, Sensation

Sensory stimuli in wine are restricted to being either chemical or physical "activators"

False

The smallest concentration of a wine component required for a taster to name it " By jove, that's sweet! Is called the

Recognition threshold

Refer to the label De Loach Vineyards Estate Bottles Russian River Valley Gewurztraminer 1987 Early Harvest. Given that "residual sugar 1.2% by wt" is about 1.2 grams per 100 ml, this wine would taste sweet to.

About 50% of people

Winetasting focuses on a relatively narrow range of existing colors

FALSE

Wine sensory components such as color which evoke pleasure in and of themselves are said to have a hedonic quality

True

What sensory quality would not be expected from the clue " A white wine is very pale and nearly colorless"?

Intense fruit aromas

Overall quality in red wines is correlated with total color and pigment content.

True

Our appreciation of wines is mainly due to their odors.

True

Flavors are actually odors—or "in-mouth smells"—that reach our olfactory epithelium when we hold the wine in our mouths.

True

The maximum sensitivity of our sense of smell has been estimated at one part per 10,000

False

It has been estimated that the average person can learn as many as 200 odors

False

The sensory organ for the sense of smell is located at the top and rear of the nasal cavity and about 5-10% of the air reaches it in normal breathing.

True

We can only smell volatile molecules that can evaporate from the surface of a wine at the range of temperatures at which it is customarily served.

True

Which of the winetasting activities listed below is not done to enhance a taster's ability to experience the wine's odors

Hold the wine against a white background

Winetasters may find that a wine's odors are stronger and more pleasant when they are experienced in the mouth as flavors rather than as odors entering the olfactory area in inhaled air

True

Which taste quality is very rare in wines?

Salty

Where are the papillae located that have very few taste buds in them?

On the tongue's top surface

We should question the accuracy of the taste bud map of the tongue because we don't taste sweet or sour or bitter or salty in just one place.

True

At a gross level we are most sensitive to which taste quality

Bitterness

Which item on the list below is not perceived in wine with your sense of touch?

Acidity

When the stimulus alcohol is present in high amounts in a wine, you can expect to experience both a taste and a tactile sensation. These sensations are

Sweet, Hot

Adaptation is a change in sensitivity that occurs in response to different levels of stimulation. Winetasters learn to work with olfactory adaptation by resting 15-45 seconds between sniffs when evaluating wines.

True

An example of taste adaption is the fact that we are unaware of the taste of our own saliva.

True

Refer to the label William Hill 1989 Willamette Valley Oregon Dry White Riesling. Which statement below is an accurate prediction of how you would expect this wine to taste and smell to most people?

Without perceptible sweetness and with an aroma, which has an eminent, that is like roses.

PTC tasting is a well-documented example of how dramatically people can vary in their abilities to taste something bitter and it accurately predicts a person's sensitivity to bitterness in wines.

False

Anosmia can refer to the loss of a person's ability to smell all odors and the term "specific anosmia" is used when someone cannot detect a particular scent but otherwise has a normal sense of smell

True

The orange juice effect is an example of

A taste modifier

You just served two glasses of De Loach Vineyards Estate Bottled Russian River Valley Gewurztraminer 1987 Early Harvest to a friend. One glass is colder and the other is warmer. When she tastes them, the warmer wine will seem

Sweeter

The NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC smell survey found that olfactory sensitivity is reduced during pregnancy and that odor perception declines during aging.

True

Women are more able to learn to identify odors than men.

True

Blind tastings—in which the wines are identified only by a letter or numerical code—are designed to eliminate stimulus errors which occur when irrelevant criteria are used to judge wines.

True

Our ability to recall wine odors can be reduced by giving the odor a verbal structure, such as our associations with the odor and dictionary-style definitions

False

The wine aroma wheel was designed to enhance the accuracy of communication about wine odors among member of the wine industry

True

When judging the appearance of wines, the taster evaluates their

Clarity

The higher the alcohol content of a wine, the thicker the streams produced when the wine falls back down the side of the glass after it is swirled.

False

In white table wines, this color is a sign that the wine has been exposed to too much air in production or has been bottle aged too long

Brown

Within the normal color range for white table wines, darker colors are associated with oak barrel aging and/or later harvests.

True

Among red wines, a purple hue is associated with older, bottle-aged wines and the brick red hue

False

Because their detection and prevention is of central concern to wine makers, a very large number of off odors have been linked to particular diagnostic chemicals—such as acetic acid and ethyl acetate—which can be found by laboratory as well as sensory analysis

True

In wine usage ______ refers to the odors which come from the grape and _______ is used for smells that come from fermentation and aging in oak and bottle.

Aroma, bouquet

For a wine to have perceptible varietal aromas requires a particular grape variety, proper growing conditions, and carful winemaking

True

The term "flavor components" is used for the chemicals responsible for a wine's taste and tactile sensations

False

A wine with inadequate body would be correctly described as flat.

False

What sensation would you expect in your mouth when the stimulus tannin in the wine is low or absent?

Smooth

You are tasting two White Riesling wines. They are identical except for sugar content. Wine A has 3 times as much sugar as wine B. When you taste the two wines, you expect wine A to have more body than wine B.

True

Great wines are distinguished from ordinary wines by their greater complexity, harmony, and the power to stimulate the emotions.

True

Serious wine tasters do not smoke during tastings and do not come to them wearing perfume, after-shave, or with recently-brushed teeth.

True

The glasses for winetastings are not

Funnel-shaped.

This group of wines is served at the coldest temperature both in the restaurant and tasting laboratory

Sparkling and sweet wine.

Which tasting order would place the second wine at a disadvantage?

Sweet before dry.

To inspect a wine for color, hold it up to a bright source of light such as a clear light bulb or candle.

False

Winetasters begin the olfactory stage of evaluating a wine by swirling the wine in the glass 6 or 8quick revolutions and putting their noses into the glass and taking 4 or 5 deep sniffs.

False

Winetasters draw some air through the wine so that all their taste buds can come into contact with the wine and the tactile receptors in their mouths can sense its sweetness and tartness

False

A winetaste who is evaluating the quality of a wine will take time to notice—among other things—if the wine has a lot of odors and flavors or just a few, how well the individual parts fit together, and if it pleases him or her.

True

Table wines are also referred to as natural wines and contain 14% alcohol or less

True

A clone is a subgroup of a grape species and is distinguished from other clones by economically important hereditary traits such as its climatic adaptation

False

Varietal wines are made mainly from a single variety of grapes that should impart a characteristic aroma and flavor to the wine.

True

The wine type refers to a winemaker's characteristic way of combining and balancing the sensory features that distinguish a particular wine to create an individualistic expression of that wine.

False

You would expect a warmer glass of a wine to have more intense aromas compared to a colder glass of the same wine.

True

Which grape variety below would be most consistently used for premium wines rather than jug wines?

Gewurztraminer

Weather refers to the generally prevailing weather conditions in a region—temperature, wind speed, rainfall, etc. -averaged over a series of years

False

The climate of the vineyard is called a

Mesoclimate

The degree to which a grapevine's foliage and fruit are exposed to light can determine the amount of distinctive flavor compounds in its grapes.

True

If the amounts of the chemicals responsible for the celery/fresh vegetable, herbaceous, or grassy character of Sauvignon Blanc are reduced, fruity flavors of grape-fruit, pineapple, melon, and fig emerge.

True

According to the grape growers surveyed, which vineyard factor below does not promote grassiness in Sauvignon Blanc?

Less fertilization

When grapes ripen, they get bigger and softer, their green color fades, aromatic compounds increase, sugars increase, and both total acid concentration and acid strength increase.

False

For winemaking the most important sugar in grape juice is sucrose.

False

The amount of sugar in grape juice is estimated by measuring its density in units called "degrees Brix", which correspond to the percentage by weight of sugar in the juice.

True

If you were buying Chardonnay grapes for your winery, what composition listed below would you like them to have?

22.9 degrees Brix, .80 total acid

The weakening of acid strength during ripening is more important for wine quality than is the decrease in the total amount of acid, because wines with stronger acid strengths have brighter colors, require smaller amounts of sulfur dioxide to protect them, and more easily resist spoilage

True

Refractometers are used to estimate degrees Brix of a properly collected vineyard sample and can also be used to measure the disappearance of sugars during fermentation.

False

This winemaking step ideally involves only breaking the skins of the grape berries to allow the juice to flow out without any damage to the seeds or stems.

Crushing

The mixture of skins, seeds, stems, juice, and pulp produced when the skin of a grape is broken and the juice flows out is called

Must

Sulfur dioxide is added at the crusher to slow down the growth of microbes that can spoil wines and to protect the juice from reactions with oxygen that can lead to both browning of pigments and deterioration of aroma and flavor.

True

A typical sulfur dioxide in wine would be

35-125 parts per million

Sulfur dioxide is only added once during winemaking, at the crusher-stemmer.

False

For premium white varietal wine production skin contact means that the chilled must is pumped into a tank to sit for several hours.

True

Free-run juice has more sugar and less acid and tannin than press-run juice because press juice is extracted at higher pressures from must containing a higher proportion of stems, skins, and seeds

True

Grappa can be produced when press juice is fermented and then distilled

True

Modern premium winemaking equipment allows the extraction of about 135-185 gallons of juice per ton of grapes. This is made up of about 3 times as much press-run juice as free-run juice.

False

The grape solids in the must are called pomace.

True

A juice with about 20 degrees Brix will yield a wine with about 10% alcohol through fermentation by yeasts, primarily from the genus Saccharomyces.

True

Because carbon dioxide gas is produced during fermentation, fermentation tanks are equipped with one way valves that allow CO2 to escape while preventing air from entering.

True

Wild yeasts are not used by most wineries because they can produce off odors and typically will stop fermenting at around 6-9% alcohol.

True

A stuck fermentation is one that cannot be started.

False

Which procedure listed below would you not expect to be done before fermentation of Chardonnay?

Cold Stabilization.

A probable fermentation temperature for premium quality white table wines would be about ___ degrees Fahrenheit

55

Wines of 2-3% residual sugar can be made by slowing down their fermentations before all the sugar has been used up by chilling them at about 4-8 Brix and then centrifuging to remove the cold-inactivated yeast.

True

Sediments in wine tanks are called lees

True

The malolactic fermentation reduces the acidity in the fermenting grape juice and finished wine because it converts the malic acid from the grape juice to lactic acid, which is less tart.

True

The malolactic fermentation is most often used to reduce the acidity of warm region or warm to hot season grape juices

False

It is critical for winemakers to control the timing of the MLF to be sure that is it completed before bottling

True

Because most of the worlds white table wines emphasize the aroma of the grapes and the MLF reduces fruitiness, most winemakers take precautions to prevent the MLF altogether in these wines.

True

The process of transferring wine from one vat containing lees to another vat which is clean is called

Racking

In filtering, the wine is forced through media that vary in tightness from those that trap and remove just the very largest particles (chunks of grape skins) to those that take out tiny mololactic bacteria.

True

Fining is a clarification process that is uses as much to alter other important organoleptic properties of wines as to clarify them.

True

Fining agents (such as gelatin and egg albumen) react with the specific wine components (tannins in this case) that are to be removed and form particles that can be removed.

True

A wine is neither heat nor cold-stable if it becomes cloudy when exposed to high temperatures and it forms crystals when subjected to temperatures around 32 degrees F.

True

Making sure wines are microbiologically stable is designed to prevent gassiness and the development of off odors and flavors from bacteria and yeast growth during barrel aging.

False

Sterile filtration followed by aseptic bottling are key strategies in creating microbiological stability

True

Because vinegar bacteria can spoil wine only in the presence of oxygen, winemakers minimize air contact with wines in bulk storage.

True

Because nearly all white table wines are valued principally for their youthful, fruity characteristics, the vast majority of white wines are aged in neutral containers only for as long as it takes to clarify and stabilize them. Only a tiny minority of the world's white wines are candidates for aging in oak containers.

True

American oak barrels will impart more oak or vanilla flavor to wines than will European oak barrels.

True

For winemaking, oak from the forests of France is all pretty much the same

False

Larger barrels will impart more oak character to wines than smaller barrels.

False

Under which aging conditions will the components of the wine in a barrel become concentrated?

The barrels are stored in a relatively dry environment such as an above-ground warehouse in California

Many California wineries have found that oak chips or oak structures added to wines in stainless steel tanks can satisfactorily duplicate all aspects of the barrel aging process and are much cheaper

False

There are certain conventions based on flavor and structural compatibility that are followed by many producers when making varietal blends. For example, Chardonnay and Chenin Blanc are often blended

False

The bottle shape and color are chosen for a particular wine based on the traditional shapes and colors used in the European wine. Clear Bordeaux bottles are often used for Sauvignon Blanc and Semillion varietal wines.

True

Corks come from the bark of an oak, Quercus suber.

True

The date that bottles in the case were filled is stamped on the box. This is useful for estimating the approximate drinkability of wines without vintage dates.

True

You have been hired by Chateau Prestigious Wine Cellars to project their cash flows in the first year of operation. Based on your extensive knowledge of the white wine making process, you calculate that the first income from the sale of their oak-aged Chardonnay wines could come at about ____ months after the harvest.

12-18

You lost your job when Chirrau Prestigious Wine Cellars folded because its first year cash flows were gobbled up by the owners high living son in law. Luckily, you have been hired by the neighboring wine cellar, Chateau Very Ordinary, and asked to project their cash flows. Based on your extensive knowledge of the white wine making process, you calculate that they could expect to first earn income from the sale of their Jus' Plains Mountain Chablis witness about ______ months after the harvest.

3-5

Blends are typically made the same day as the wines are bottled.

False

California's coastal wineries store bottles wines an average of four months at the winery until they are released for sale.

True

Which item on the list is not a part of the best possible aging conditions for bottled wines?

Underground

The best wines will improve indefinitely after bottling if kept under the proper conditions.

False

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