Radiographic Procedures - Radiology Exam Review [ARRT] -[Appelton & Lange Review] - Radiographic Procedures

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Appleton & Lange Review For The Radiography Exam ARRT Section 2.) Radiographic Procedures

Which of the following positions would be obtained with the patient lying prone recumbent on the radiographic table, and the central ray directed horizontally to the iliac crest?
(A) Ventral decubitus position
(B) Dorsal decubitus position
(C) Left lateral decubitus position
(D) Right lateral decubitus position

Ventral Decubitus Position.

Which of the following is (are) effective in reducing breast exposure during scoliosis examinations?
1. Use of a high-speed imaging system
2. Use of breast shields
3. Use of compensating filtration
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

Use Of High-Speed Imaging System.

Use Of Breast Shields.

Use Of Compensating Filtration

Which of the following projections of the ankle would best demonstrate the distal tibiofibular joint?
(A) Medial oblique 15 to 20º
(B) Lateral oblique 15 to 20º
(C) Medial oblique 45º
(D) Lateral oblique 45º

Medial Oblique 45º.

Which of the following is a functional study used to demonstrate the degree of AP motion present in the cervical spine?
(A) Open-mouth projection
(B) Moving mandible AP
(C) Flexion and extension laterals
(D) Right and left bending AP

Flexion and Extension Laterals.

The two palpable bony landmarks that are generally used for accurate localization of the hip are the
(A) anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and symphysis pubis.
(B) iliac crest and greater trochanter.
(C) symphysis pubis and greater trochanter.
(D) iliac crest and symphysis pubis.

Anterior Superior iliac Spine (ASIS) and Symphysis Pubis.

Which of the following structures is (are) most likely to be demonstrated in a right lateral decubitus position of a double-contrast BE?
1. Lateral wall of the descending colon
2. Medial wall of the ascending colon
3. Lateral wall of the ascending colon
(A) 1 only
(B) 3 only
(C) 1 and 2 only
(D) 2 and 3 only

Lateral Wall of the Descending Colon.

Medial Wall of the Ascending Colon.

To demonstrate esophageal varices, the patient must be examined in
(A) the recumbent position.
(B) the erect position.
(C) the anatomic position.
(D) Fowler's position.

The Recumbent Position.

(The recumbent position affords more complete filling of the veins, as blood flows against gravity.)

In order to demonstrate the first two cervical vertebrae in the AP projection, the patient is positioned so that
(A) the glabellomeatal line is vertical.
(B) the acanthiomeatal line is vertical.
(C) a line between the mentum and the mastoid tip is vertical.
(D) a line between the maxillary occlusal plane and the mastoid tip is vertical.

A Line Between The Maxillary Occlusal Plane and The Mastoid Tip Is Vertical.

The left sacroiliac joint is positioned perpendicular to the film when the patient is positioned in a
(A) left lateral position.
(B) 25 to 30º LAO position.
(C) 25 to 30º LPO position.
(D) 30 to 40º LPO position.

25 to 30º LAO Position.

Which of the following is (are) located on the posterior aspect of the femur?
1. Intercondyloid fossa
2. Intertrochanteric crest
3. Intertubercular groove
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 2 and 3 only

1) Intercondyloid Fossa
2) Interrochanteric Crest
(1 and 2 only)

Which of the following is proximal to the carpal bones?
(A) Distal interphalangeal joints
(B) Proximal interphalangeal joints
(C) Metacarpals
(D) Radial styloid process

Radial Styloid Process

The scapula pictured in Figure 2-27 demonstrates
1. its posterior aspect.
2. its costal surface.
3. its sternal articular surface.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3
(Tortora & Grabowski, p 221)

Its Posterior Aspect.
(1 only)

Which projection(s) of the abdomen would be used to demonstrate pneumoperitoneum?
1. Right lateral decubitus
2. Left lateral decubitus
3. Upright
(A) 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

2) Left Lateral Decubitus.
3) Upright.
(2 and 3 only)

The sternoclavicular joints are best demonstrated with the patient PA and
(A) in a slight oblique position, affected side adjacent to the image recorder.
(B) in a slight oblique position, affected side away from the image recorder.
(C) erect and weight-bearing.
(D) erect, with and without weights.

In a Slight Oblique Position, Affected Side Adjacent To The Image Recorder.

When the patient is recumbent and the central ray is directed horizontally, the patient is said to be in the
(A) Trendelenburg position.
(B) Fowler's position.
(C) decubitus position.
(D) Sims position.

Decubitus Position.

Which of the following correctly identifies the position illustrated in Figure 2-14?
(A) AP axial mastoids (Towne / Grashey)
(B) Axiolateral TMJ (open mouth)
(C) Axiolateral mastoids (Laws)
(D) Posterior profile mastoids (Stenvers)
(Saia, pp 158-159)

Axiolateral Mastoids (Laws)

(The pictured radiograph shows an axiolateral projection (Laws method) of the right mastoid)

(The mastoid air cells are easily recognized in the temporal region just posterior to the auditory canal)

Which of the following positions would best demonstrate the left apophyseal articulations of the lumbar vertebrae?
(A) LPO
(B) RPO
(C) Left lateral
(D) PA

LPO

Which of the following would best evaluate the structure labeled 4 in Figure 2-12?
(A) PA axial projection (Caldwell method)
(B) Parietoacanthial projection (Waters' method)
(C) Lateral projection
(D) Submentovertical projection
[Figure 2-12 illustrates an anatomic lateral view of the paranasal sinuses.]
(Bontrager, pp 416-418)

Parietoacanthial Projection (Waters' method)

# 4 is the maxillary sinuses,
which are best demonstrated using the parietoacanthial projection (Waters' method).

Which of the following positions / projections of the skull will result in the most shape distortion? (A) 0º PA
(B) 23º Caldwell
(C) 37º Towne / Grashey
(D) 25º Haas

37º Towne / Grashey.

The pedicle is represented by what part of the "scotty dog" seen in a correctly positioned oblique lumbar spine?
(A) Eye
(B) Front foot
(C) Body
(D) Neck
(Fig. 2-49). (Saia, p 131)

Eye.

Which of the following sinus groups is demonstrated with the patient positioned as for a parietoacanthial projection (Waters' method) and the central ray directed through the patient's open mouth?
(A) Frontal
(B) Ethmoidal
(C) Maxillary
(D) Sphenoidal

Sphenoidal.

(The central ray is directed through the sphenoidal sinuses and exits the open mouth.)

During a gastrointestinal examination, the AP recumbent projection of a stomach of average shape will usually demonstrate
1. anterior and posterior aspects of the stomach.
2. barium-filled fundus.
3. double-contrast body and antral portions.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

2) Barium Filled Fundus
3) Double-Contrast Body and Antral Portions
(2 and 3 only)

What instructions might a patient be given following an upper GI examination?
1. Drink plenty of fluids.
2. Take a mild laxative.
3. Increase dietary fiber.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

1) Drink Plenty Of Liquids.
2) Take A Mild Laxative.
3) Increase Dietary Fiber.
(1, 2, and 3)

What is the structure indicated by the number 7 in Figure 2-16?
(A) Common hepatic duct
(B) Common bile duct
(C) Cystic duct
(D) Pancreatic duct
[Figure 2-16 illustrates the biliary system. ]
(Tortora & Grabowski, p 875)

Cystic Duct.

(Bile enters the gallbladder through the cystic duct - # 7).

The structure labeled 2 in Figure 2-12 is the
(A) maxillary sinus.
(B) sphenoidal sinus.
(C) ethmoidal sinus.
(D) frontal sinus.
[Figure 2-12 illustrates an anatomic lateral view of the paranasal sinuses.]
(Bontrager, pp 416-418)

Ethmoidal Sinus.

# 2 the ethmoidal sinuses; can be visualized using the PA axial projection (Caldwell method).

The PA chest radiograph seen in Figure 2-11 demonstrates
1. rotation.
2. scapulae removed from lung fields.
3. excessively high contrast.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3
(Cornuelle & Gronefeld, p 46)

1) Rotation
2) Scapulae Removed From Lung Fields.

(1 and 2 only)

(Rotation of the chest is demonstrated by unequal distance between the sternum and medial extremities of the clavicles.)

Which of the localization lines seen in Figure 2-35 are separated by 7º?
(A) Lines 1 and 3
(B) Lines 2 and 3
(C) Lines 1 and 4
(D) Lines 3 and 4
(Saia, p 142)

(B) Lines 2 and 3

(The OML (line 2) and the IOML (line 3) are usually separated by 7º.)

Which of the following articulates with the base of the first metatarsal?
(A) First cuneiform
(B) Third cuneiform
(C) Navicular
(D) Cuboid

First Cuneiform.

(The base of the first metatarsal articulates with the first (medial) cuneiform.)

The sigmoid colon is located in the
(A) left upper quadrant (LUQ).
(B) left lower quadrant (LLQ).
(C) right upper quadrant (RUQ).
(D) right lower quadrant (RLQ).

Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ).
(B)

At what level do the carotid arteries bifurcate?
(A) Foramen magnum
(B) Trachea
(C) Pharynx
(D) C4

C4

(The carotid arteries bifurcate into internal and external carotid arteries at the level of C4.)

All of the following statements regarding pediatric positioning are true, except
(A) For radiography of the kidneys, the central ray should be directed midway between the diaphragm and the symphysis pubis.
(B) If a pediatric patient is in respiratory distress, a chest radiograph should be obtained in the AP projection rather than the standard PA projection.
(C) Chest radiography on a neonate should be performed in the supine position.
(D) Radiography of pediatric patients with a myelomeningocele defect should be performed in the supine position.

Radiography of Pediatric Patients With a Myelomeningocele Defect Should Be Performed in The Supine Position.

[Radiography of Pediatric Patients With a Myelomeningocele Defect Should Be Performed in the Prone Position, Rather Than The Routine Supine Position. ]

What should be done if the patient is unable to extend his or her head sufficiently for the acanthioparietal projection (reverse Waters' method)?
1. Place a support behind the patient's shoulders.
2. Angle cephalad.
3. Angle caudad.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 3 only
(D) 1 and 3 only

1) Place a Support Behind The Patient's Shoulders.
2) Angle Cephalid

(1 and 2 only)

[The reverse Waters' method is used when the patient is unable to assume the prone position)

--If the patient is unable to assume this position, the CR is angled cephalad so as to be parallel to the mentomeatal line.

Myelography is a diagnostic examination used to demonstrate
1. extrinsic spinal cord compression resulting from disk herniation.
2. post-traumatic swelling of the spinal cord.
3. internal disk lesions.
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 2 only
(D) 1 and 3 only

1) Extrinsic Spinal Cord Compression Resulting From Disk Herniation.
2) Post-Tramatic Swelling Of The Spinal Cord.

(1 and 2 only)

Angulation of the central ray may be required
1. to avoid superimposition of overlying structures.
2. to avoid foreshortening or self-superimposition.
3. in order to project through certain articulations.
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

1) To Avoid Superimposition of Overlying Structures.
2) To Avoid Foreshortening or Self-Superimposition.
3) In Order To Project Through Certain Articulations.
(1, 2, and 3)

During a double-contrast BE, which of the following positions would afford the best double-contrast visualization of both colic flexures?
(A) LAO and RPO
(B) Lateral
(C) Left lateral decubitus
(D) AP or PA erect

AP or PA Erect.

[With the patient in the erect position, barium moves inferiorly and air rises to provide double-contrast visualization of the hepatic and splenic flexures. ]

In the lateral projection of the foot, the
1. plantar surface should be perpendicular to the film.
2. metatarsals are superimposed.
3. talofibular joint should be visualized.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

1) Plantar Surface Should Be Perpendicular To The Film.
2) Metatarsals Are Superimposed.
(1 and 2 only)

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the radiograph in Figure 2-10 [A right "scapular Y" is illustrated]?
1. The patient is placed in an RAO position.
2. The midcoronal plane is about 60º to the film.
3. The acromion process is free of superimposition.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3
(Ballinger & Frank, vol 1, pp 179-181)

1) The Patient Is Placed In an RAO Position.
2) The Mid coronal Plane is about 60 degrees to The Film.
3) The Acromion Process Is Free of Superimposition.

(1, 2, and 3)

With the patient's head in a PA position and the central ray directed 20º cephalad, which part of the mandible will be best visualized?
(A) Symphysis
(B) Rami
(C) Body
(D) Angle

Rami

[With the patient in the PA position, the rami are well visualized with a perpendicular ray or with 20 to 25º cephalad angulation. A portion of the mandibular body is demonstrated, but most of it is superimposed over the cervical spine. ]

Which of the following statements regarding the male pelvis is (are) true?
1. The angle formed by the pubic arch is less than that of the female.
2. The pelvic outlet is wider than that of the female.
3. The ischial tuberosities are further apart.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

1) The Angle Formed By The Pubic Arch is Less Than That of a Female.

(1 only)

An intrathecal injection is associated with which of the following examinations?
(A) IVP
(B) Retrograde pyelogram
(C) Myelogram
(D) Arthrogram

Myelogram

[An intrathecal injection is one made within the meninges.]
[ A myelogram requires an intrathecal injection in order to introduce contrast medium into the subarachnoid space.]

In which of the following positions was the radiograph in Figure 2-23 probably made?
(A) AP recumbent
(B) PA recumbent
(C) PA upright
(D) AP Trendelenburg
(Ballinger & Frank, vol 2, p 102)

PA Recumbent

[X-ray is a PA Recumbent Projection]

[The barium-filled stomach tends to spread more horizontally in the PA position]

When modifying the PA axial projection of the skull to demonstrate superior orbital fissures, the central ray is directed
(A) 20 to 25º caudad.
(B) 20 to 25º cephalad.
(C) 30 to 35º caudad.
(D) 30 to 35º cephalad.

20 to 25º Caudad.

The ileocecal valve is normally located in which of the following body regions?
(A) Right iliac
(B) Left iliac
(C) Right lumbar
(D) Hypogastric
(Saia, p 77)

Right Iliac.

With which of the following does the trapezium articulate?
(A) Fifth metacarpal
(B) First metacarpal
(C) Distal radius
(D) Distal ulna

First Metacarpal.

[The first metacarpal, on the lateral side of the hand, articulates with the most lateral carpal of the distal carpal row]

The number 4 in the radiograph in Figure 2-4 [is one of a series of IVP] represents which of the following renal structures?
(A) Vesicoureteral junction
(B) Renal pelvis
(C) Minor calyx
(D) Major calyx
(Bontrager, pp 543-544)

Vesicoureteral Junction.

[The vesicoureteral junction (# 4) is located at the distal end of the ureter, where it unites with the urinary bladder.

Which of the following articulate(s) with the bases of the metatarsals?
1. The heads of the first row of phalanges
2. The cuboid
3. The cuneiforms
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

2) The Cuboid
3) The Cuneiforms

(2 and 3 only)

All of the following statements regarding respiratory structures are true except
(A) The right lung has two lobes.
(B) The uppermost portion of the lung is the apex.
(C) Each lung is enclosed in pleura.
(D) The trachea bifurcates into mainstem bronchi. (Bontrager, pp 69-70)

The Right Lung Has Two Lobes.

Indications for a myelographic cervical puncture include
1. demonstration of the upper level of a spinal block.
2. suspected mass lesion in the upper cervical canal.
3. failure of lumbar puncture.
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

1) Demonstration Of The Upper Level of a Spinal Block.
3) Failure of Lumbar Puncture.

(1 and 3 only)

The term that refers to parts closer to the source or beginning is
(A) cephalad.
(B) caudad.
(C) proximal.
(D) medial.

Proximal.

Which of the following will best demonstrate acromioclavicular separation?
(A) AP recumbent, affected shoulder
(B) AP recumbent, both shoulders
(C) AP erect, affected shoulder
(D) AP erect, both shoulders

AP Erect, Both Shoulders.

Which of the following is an important consideration in order to avoid excessive metacarpophalangeal joint overlap in the oblique projection of the hand?
(A) Oblique the hand no more than 45º.
(B) Use a support sponge for the phalanges.
(C) Clench the fist to bring the carpals closer to the film.
(D) Utilize ulnar flexion.

Oblique The Hand No More Than 45º.

When performing tomography, it is of paramount importance that the radiographer
1. properly apply immobilization.
2. provide adequate radiation protection whenever possible.
3. obtain and check a scout film.
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

1) Properly Apply Immobilization.
2) Provide Adequate Radiation Projection Whenever Possible.
3) Obtain and Check a Scout Film.

(1, 2, and 3)

In the lateral projection of the ankle, the
1. talotibial joint is visualized.
2. talofibular joint is visualized.
3. tibia and fibula are superimposed.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

1) Talotibial Joint Is Visualized.
2) Talofibular Joint Is Visualized.
3) Tibia and Tibia are Superimposed.
(1 and 3 only)

When evaluating a PA axial projection of the skull with a 15º caudal angle, the radiographer should see
1. petrous pyramids in the lower third of the orbits.
2. equal distance from the lateral border of the skull to the lateral rim of the orbit bilaterally.
3. symmetrical petrous pyramids.

(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

1) Petrous Pyramids In The Lower Third of The Orbits.
2) Equal Distance From The Lateral Border of the Skull to the Lateral Rim of the Orbit Bilaterally.
3) Symmetrical Pertrous Pyramids.
( 1, 2, and 3)

The apophyseal articulations of the thoracic spine are demonstrated with the
(A) coronal plane 45º to the film.
(B) midsagittal plane 45º to the film.
(C) coronal plane 70º to the film.
(D) midsagittal plane 70º to the film.

Coronal Plane 70º to the Film.

[The thoracic apophyseal joints are demonstrated by placing the patient in an oblique position with the coronal plane 70º to the film (MSP 20º to the film). This may be accomplished by first placing the patient lateral, then obliquing the patient 20º "off lateral."]

The contraction and expansion of arterial walls in accordance with forceful contraction and relaxation of the heart is called
(A) hypertension.
(B) elasticity.
(C) pulse.
(D) pressure.

Pulse.

Which of the following skull positions will demonstrate the cranial base, sphenoidal sinuses, atlas, and odontoid process?
(A) AP axial
(B) Lateral
(C) Parietoacanthial
(D) Submentovertical (SMV)

Submentovertical (SMV).

Which of the following may be used to evaluate the glenohumeral joint?
1. Scapular Y projection
2. Inferosuperior axial
3. Transthoracic lateral
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

1) Scapular Y Projection
2) Inferosuperior Axil
3) Transthoracic Lateral
(1, 2, and 3)

Which of the following bony landmarks is in the same transverse plane as the symphysis pubis?
(A) Ischial tuberosity
(B) Most prominent part of the greater trochanter
(C) Anterior superior iliac spine
(D) Anterior inferior iliac spine

Most Prominent Part of the Greater Trochanter

Which of the following is (are) accurate criticism(s) of the open-mouth projection of C1-2 seen in Figure 2-22?
1. The MSP is not centered and perpendicular to the midline of the table.
2. The neck should be flexed more.
3. The neck should be extended more.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 3 only
(D) 1 and 3 only
[xray shows the odontoid process superimposed on the base of the skull]
(Ballinger & Frank, vol 1, pp 388-389)

1) The MSP is not centered and Perpendicular To The Middline of the Table.
2) The Neck Should Be Flexed More.

(1 and 2 only)

During lower-limb venography, tourniquets are applied above the knee and ankle to
1. suppress filling of the superficial veins.
2. coerce filling of the deep veins.
3. outline the anterior tibial vein.
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

1) suppress Filling Of The Superficial Veins.
2) Coerce Filling OfvThe Deep Veins.
(1 and 2 only)

The manubrial notch is at approximately the same level as the
(A) fifth thoracic vertebra.
(B) T2-3 interspace.
(C) T4-5 interspace.
(D) costal margin.

T2-3 Interspace.

The tissue that occupies the central cavity within the shaft of a long bone in an adult is
(A) red marrow.
(B) yellow marrow.
(C) cortical tissue.
(D) cancellous tissue.

Yellow Marrow.

Which projection of the foot will best demonstrate the longitudinal arch?
(A) Mediolateral
(B) Lateromedial
(C) Lateral weight-bearing
(D) 30º medial oblique

Lateral Weight-Bearing.

Which of the following projections will best demonstrate the tarsal navicular free of superimposition?
(A) AP oblique, medial rotation
(B) AP oblique, lateral rotation
(C) Mediolateral
(D) Lateral weight-bearing

AP Oblique, Medial Rotation

The plane that passes vertically through the body, dividing it into anterior and posterior halves, is termed the
(A) median sagittal plane.
(B) midcoronal plane.
(C) sagittal plane.
(D) transverse plane.
(Fig. 2-52). (Saia, p 75)

Midcoronal Plane.

In what position was the radiograph in Figure 2-30 made?
(A) Flexion
(B) Extension
(C) Left bending
(D) Right bending
(Ballinger & Frank, vol 1, pp 398, 399)

Flexion

Which of the following is (are) valid criteria for a lateral projection of the forearm?
1. The radius and ulna should be superimposed proximally and distally.
2. The coronoid process and radial head should be superimposed.
3. The radial tuberosity should face anteriorly.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

2) The Coronoid Process and Radial Head Should Be Superimposed.
3) The Radial Tuberosity Should Face Anteriorly.

In the lateral projection of the knee, the central ray is angled 5º cephalad in order to prevent superimposition of which of the following structures on the joint space?
(A) Lateral femoral condyle
(B) Medial femoral condyle
(C) Patella
(D) Tibial eminence

Medial Femoral Condyle

[This places the lateral femoral condyle closest to the film and the medial femoral condyle remote from the film.]

In the posterior oblique position of the cervical spine, the central ray should be directed
(A) parallel to C4.
(B) perpendicular to C4.
(C) 15º cephalad to C4.
(D) 15º caudad to C4.

15º Cephalad to C4.

Which of the following would be obtained with the position illustrated in Figure 2-17 [An RPO position is illustrated]?
1. Splenic flexure and descending colon
2. Hepatic flexure and ascending colon
3. Hepatic flexure and descending colon
(A) 1 only
(B) 3 only
(C) 1 and 2 only
(D) 1 and 3 only
(Ballinger & Frank, vol 2, p 141)

Splenic Flexure and Descending Colon.

Mammography of the augmented breast is best accomplished using
(A) the Cleopatra method.
(B) the Eklund method.
(C) magnification films.
(D) the cleavage view.

The Eklund Method.

Which of the following are characteristics of the hypersthenic body type?
1. Short, wide, transverse heart
2. High and peripheral large bowel
3. Diaphragm positioned low
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3
(Ballinger & Frank, vol 1, p 41)

1) Short, Wide, Transverse Heart.
2) High and Peripheal Large Bowel.

Which of the following structures is illustrated by the number 4 in Figure 2-19?
(A) Maxillary sinus
(B) Coronoid process
(C) Zygomatic arch
(D) Coracoid process
(Bontrager, p 430)

Maxillary Sinus

Which of the following is represented by the number 3 in Figure 2-34?
(A) Inferior vena cava
(B) Aorta
(C) Gallbladder
(D) Psoas muscle
[A cross-sectional image of the abdomen is pictured] (Bontrager, p 100)

Aorta

A lateral projection of the hand in extension is often recommended to evaluate
1. a fracture.
2. a foreign body.
3. soft tissue.
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1 and 3 only

A Foreign Body
A Soft Tissue

The scapular Y projection of the shoulder demonstrates
1. an oblique projection of the shoulder.
2. anterior or posterior dislocation.
3. a lateral projection of the shoulder.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 2 and 3 only

(B) 1 and 2 only

[The scapular Y projection requires that the coronal plane be about 60º to the film, thus resulting in an oblique projection of the shoulder.]

When examining a patient whose elbow is in partial flexion, how should the AP projection be obtained?
1. With humerus parallel to film, central ray perpendicular
2. With forearm parallel to film, central ray perpendicular
3. Through the partially flexed elbow, resting on the olecranon process, central ray perpendicular
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

Posterior displacement of a tibial fracture would be best demonstrated in the
(A) AP projection.
(B) lateral projection.
(C) medial oblique projection.
(D) lateral oblique projection.

(B) lateral projection.

Which of the following positions will demonstrate the right axillary ribs?
1. RAO
2. LAO
3. RPO
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 2 and 3 only

[The axillary portion of the ribs is best demonstrated in a 45º oblique position.]

All of the following statements regarding an exact PA projection of the skull, with the central ray perpendicular to the film, are true except
(A) The orbitomeatal line is perpendicular to the film.
(B) The petrous pyramids fill the orbits.
(C) The midsagittal plane (MSP) is parallel to the film.
(D) The central ray exits at the nasion.
(Ballinger & Frank, vol 2, p 242)

(C) The midsagittal plane (MSP) is parallel to the film.

Which of the following positions will best demonstrate the left axillary portion of the ribs?
(A) Left lateral
(B) PA
(C) LPO
(D) RPO

(C) LPO

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the PA axial projection of the paranasal sinuses?
1. The central ray is directed caudally to the OML.
2. The petrous pyramids are projected into the lower third of the orbits.
3. The frontal sinuses are visualized.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

To demonstrate the entire circumference of the radial head, exposure(s) must be made with the
1. epicondyles perpendicular to the cassette.
2. hand pronated and supinated as much as possible.
3. hand lateral and in internal rotation.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Which of the following is most likely to be the correct routine for a radiographic examination of the forearm?
(A) PA and medial oblique
(B) AP and lateral oblique
(C) PA and lateral
(D) AP and lateral

(D) AP and lateral

In order to demonstrate the pulmonary apices with the patient in the AP position, the
(A) central ray is directed 15 to 20º cephalad.
(B) central ray is directed 15 to 20º caudad.
(C) exposure is made on full exhalation.
(D) patient's shoulders are rolled forward.

(A) central ray is directed 15 to 20º cephalad.

Which of the following projections of the calcaneus is obtained with the leg extended, the plantar surface of the foot vertical and perpendicular to the film, and the central ray directed 40º caudad?
(A) Axial plantodorsal projection
(B) Axial dorsoplantar projection
(C) Lateral projection
(D) Weight-bearing lateral projection

(B) Axial dorsoplantar projection

Which of the following examinations require(s) ureteral catheterization?
1. Retrograde pyelogram
2. Cystourethrogram
3. Cystoscopy
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(A) 1 only

In the lateral projection of the knee, the
1. femoral condyles are superimposed.
2. patellofemoral joint is visualized.
3. knee is flexed about 20 to 30º.
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Arthrography requires the use of
1. general anesthesia.
2. sterile technique.
3. fluoroscopy.
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 2 and 3 only

The true lateral position of the skull uses which of the following principles?
1. Interpupillary line perpendicular to the film
2. MSP perpendicular to the film
3. Infraorbitomeatal line (IOML) parallel to the transverse axis of the film
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 1 and 3 only

The stomach of an asthenic patient is most likely to be located
(A) high, transverse, and lateral.
(B) low, transverse, and lateral.
(C) high, vertical, and toward the midline.
(D) low, vertical, and toward the midline.

(D) low, vertical, and toward the midline.

Place the following anatomic structures in order from anterior to posterior:
1. Trachea
2. Apex of heart
3. Esophagus
(A) Trachea, esophagus, apex of heart
(B) Esophagus, trachea, apex of heart
(C) Apex of heart, trachea, esophagus
(D) Apex of heart, esophagus, trachea
(Fig. 2-41).
(Ballinger & Frank, vol 1, p 458)

(C) Apex of heart, trachea, esophagus

All the following positions may be used to demonstrate the sternoclavicular articulations except
(A) weight-bearing.
(B) RAO.
(C) LAO.
(D) PA.

(A) weight-bearing.

Which of the following statements is (are) true with respect to the radiograph in Figure 2-24?
1. The coracoid process is seen partially superimposed on the third rib.
2. This projection is performed to evaluate the acromioclavicular articulation.
3. This projection is performed to evaluate possible shoulder dislocation.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 2 and 3 only
(Ballinger & Frank, vol 1, p 166)

(A) 1 only

That portion of a long bone where cartilage has been replaced by bone is known as the
(A) diaphysis.
(B) epiphysis.
(C) metaphysis.
(D) apophysis.

(C) metaphysis.

Which of the following projections will best demonstrate the carpal scaphoid?
(A) Lateral wrist
(B) Ulnar flexion
(C) Radial flexion
(D) Carpal tunnel

(B) Ulnar flexion

All of the following statements regarding large-bowel radiography are true except
(A) The large bowel must be completely empty prior to examination.
(B) Retained fecal material can simulate pathology.
(C) Single-contrast studies help to demonstrate polyps.
(D) Double-contrast studies help to demonstrate intraluminal lesions.
(Saia, p 186)

(C) Single-contrast studies help to demonstrate polyps.

In order to evaluate the interphalangeal joints in the oblique and lateral positions, the fingers
(A) rest on the cassette for immobilization.
(B) must be supported parallel to the film.
(C) are radiographed in natural flexion.
(D) are radiographed in palmar flexion.

(B) must be supported parallel to the film.

What is the position of the gallbladder in an asthenic patient?
(A) Superior and medial
(B) Superior and lateral
(C) Inferior and medial
(D) Inferior and lateral

(C) Inferior and medial

When the patient is unable to assume the upright body position, how should a lateral projection of the sinuses be obtained?
(A) Horizontal beam lateral
(B) Transthoracic lateral
(C) Recumbent RAO or LAO
(D) Recumbent RPO or LPO

(A) Horizontal beam lateral

The pars interarticularis is represented by what part of the "scotty dog" seen in a correctly positioned oblique lumbar spine?
(A) Eye
(B) Front foot
(C) Body
(D) Neck
[Fig. 2-45] (Saia, p 131)

(D) Neck

Which of the following is (are) recommended when positioning the patient for a lateral projection of the chest?
1. The patient should be examined upright.
2. The shoulders should be depressed.
3. The shoulders should be rolled forward.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(A) 1 only

In order to demonstrate a profile view of the glenoid fossa, the patient is AP recumbent and obliqued 45º
(A) toward the affected side.
(B) away from the affected side.
(C) with the arm at the side in the anatomic position.
(D) with the arm in external rotation.

(A) toward the affected side.

In Figure 2-35, which of the localization lines is used for the lateral projection of the skull?
(A) Line 1
(B) Line 2
(C) Line 3
(D) Line 4
(Saia, p 144)

(C) Line 3 [Interpupillary Line]

[The lateral projection of the skull requires that the patient be in the prone oblique position with the MSP parallel to the film and the interpupillary line perpendicular to the film.]

Following the ingestion of a fatty meal, what hormone is secreted by the duodenal mucosa to stimulate contraction of the gallbladder?
(A) Insulin
(B) Cholecystokinin
(C) Adrenocorticotropic hormone
(D) Gastrin

(B) Cholecystokinin

Which of the following tube angle and direction combinations is correct for an axial projection of the clavicle, with the patient in the AP recumbent position on the x-ray table?
(A) 10 to 15º caudad
(B) 10 to 15º cephalad
(C) 25 to 30º cephalad
(D) 25 to 30º caudad

(C) 25 to 30º cephalad

Which of the positions illustrated in Figure 2-21 will best demonstrate the lumbar intervertebral foramina?
(A) Number 1
(B) Number 2
(C) Number 3
(D) Number 4
(Bontrager & Frank, vol 1, pp 431, 434-435)

(D) Number 4

[# 4 is the lateral position]
which provides the best demonstration of the lumbar bodies, intervertebral disk spaces, spinous processes, pedicles, and intervertebral foramina.

With the patient positioned as illustrated in Figure 2-18 [The PA axial projection], which of the following structures is best demonstrated?
(A) Patella
(B) Patellofemoral articulation
(C) Intercondyloid fossa
(D) Tibial tuberosity
("tunnel view") (Saia, pp 112-113)

(C) Intercondyloid fossa

Which of the following positions will provide an AP projection of the L5-S1 interspace?
(A) Patient AP with 30 to 35º angle cephalad
(B) Patient AP with 30 to 35º angle caudad
(C) Patient AP with 0º angle
(D) Patient lateral, coned to L5

(A) Patient AP with 30 to 35º angle cephalad

Which of the following anatomic structures is indicated by the number 2 in Figure 2-7?
(A) Talus
(B) Medial malleolus
(C) Lateral malleolus
(D) Lateral tibial condyle
(Cornuelle & Gronefeld, pp 193-195)

(B) Medial malleolus

The four major arteries supplying the brain include the
1. brachiocephalic artery.
2. common carotid arteries.
3. vertebral arteries.
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 2 and 3 only

What process is best seen using a perpendicular CR with the elbow in acute flexion and with the posterior aspect of the humerus adjacent to the image recorder?
(A) Coracoid
(B) Coronoid
(C) Olecranon
(D) Glenoid

(C) Olecranon

What are the positions most commonly employed for a radiographic examination of the sternum?
1. Lateral
2. RAO
3. LAO
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(A) 1 and 2 only

Which of the positions illustrated in Figure 2-1 should be used to demonstrate the cervical apophyseal articulations?
1. A
2. B
3. C
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 2 and 3 only
(Ballinger & Frank, pp 400-403)

(B) 2 only

When the erect position is requested as part of an IVP, it is used to demonstrate
(A) the adrenal glands.
(B) the renal surfaces.
(C) kidney mobility.
(D) the bladder neck.

(C) kidney mobility.

For which of the following conditions is operative cholangiography a useful tool?
1. Biliary tract calculi
2. Patency of the biliary ducts
3. Function of the sphincter of Oddi
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

During chest radiography, the act of inspiration
1. elevates the diaphragm.
2. raises the ribs.
3. depresses the abdominal viscera.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 2 and 3 only

Standard radiographic protocols may be reduced to include two views, at right angles to each other, in which of the following situations?
(A) Barium examinations
(B) Spine radiography
(C) Skull radiography
(D) Emergency and trauma radiography

(D) Emergency and trauma radiography

Which of the localization lines seen in Figure 2-35 is used for the SMV (Schüller method) projection of the skull?
(A) Line 1
(B) Line 2
(C) Line 3
(D) Line 4
(Saia, p 144)

(C) Line 3

#3 is the infraorbitomeatal line (IOML)

Which of the following projections of the abdomen may be used to demonstrate air or fluid levels?
1. Dorsal decubitus
2. Lateral decubitus
3. AP Trendelenburg
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

Blowout fractures of the orbit are best demonstrated using the
(A) lateral projection of the facial bones.
(B) parietoacanthial projection (Waters' method).
(C) posteroanterior projection with a 15º caudal angle.
(D) Sweet's localization method.

(B) parietoacanthial projection (Waters' method).

Which of the following positions demonstrates all the paranasal sinuses?
(A) Parietoacanthial
(B) PA axial
(C) Lateral
(D) True PA

(C) Lateral

Which of the following is (are) true regarding radiographic examination of the acromioclavicular joints?
1. The procedure is performed in the erect position.
2. Use of weights can improve demonstration of the joints.
3. The procedure should be avoided if dislocation or separation is suspected.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 2 and 3 only

(B) 1 and 2

The structure labeled 1 in Figure 2-30 is the
(A) intervertebral disk space.
(B) apophyseal joint.
(C) intervertebral foramen.
(D) spinous process.

[shown is a lateral projection of the cervical spine taken in flexion]
(Ballinger & Frank, vol 1, pp 398, 399)

(B) apophyseal joint.

Shoulder arthrography may be performed to evaluate
(A) humeral dislocation.
(B) complete or incomplete rotator cuff tears.
(C) osteoarthritis.
(D) acromioclavicular joint separation.
(Fig. 2-59)
(Ballinger & Frank, vol 1, p 496)

(B) complete or incomplete rotator cuff tears.

The position illustrated in the radiograph in Figure 2-26 may be obtained with the patient
1. supine and the central ray angled 30º caudad.
2. supine and the central ray angled 30º cephalad.
3. prone and the central ray angled 30º cephalad.
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 2 and 3 only
(Ballinger & Frank, vol 2, pp 134, 139)

(B) 2 only

Which of the following is demonstrated in a 25º RPO position with the central ray entering 1 in medial to the elevated ASIS?
(A) Left sacroiliac joint
(B) Right sacroiliac joint
(C) Left ilium
(D) Right ilium

(A) Left sacroiliac joint

In the posterior oblique position of the cervical spine, the intervertebral foramina that are best seen are those
(A) nearest the film.
(B) furthest from the film.
(C) seen medially.
(D) seen inferiorly.

(B) furthest from the film.

The junction of the transverse colon and the descending colon forms the
(A) hepatic flexure.
(B) splenic flexure.
(C) transverse flexure.
(D) sigmoid flexure.
(Ballinger & Frank, vol 2, p 89)

(B) splenic flexure.

In order to better demonstrate the mandibular rami in the PA position, the
(A) skull is obliqued toward the affected side.
(B) skull is obliqued away from the affected side.
(C) central ray is angled cephalad.
(D) central ray is angled caudad.

(C) central ray is angled cephalad.

Inspiration and expiration projections of the chest may be performed to demonstrate
1. pneumothorax.
2. foreign body.
3. atelectasis.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Which of the following will separate the radial head, neck, and tuberosity from superimposition on the ulna?
(A) AP
(B) Lateral
(C) Medial oblique
(D) Lateral oblique

(D) Lateral oblique

The short, thick processes that project posteriorly from the vertebral body are the
(A) transverse processes.
(B) vertebral arches.
(C) laminae.
(D) pedicles.

(D) pedicles.

The contrast media of choice for use in myelography are
(A) ionic non-water-soluble.
(B) ionic water-soluble.
(C) nonionic water-soluble.
(D) gas.

(C) nonionic water-soluble.

The axiolateral position (Law method) of examining the mastoids uses which of the following?
1. OML
2. MSP parallel to the tabletop
3. 15º caudad angulation
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 2 only
(D) 2 and 3 only

(D) 2 and 3 only

Which of the following can be used to demonstrate the intercondyloid fossa?
1. Patient PA, knee flexed 40º, central ray directed caudad 40º to the popliteal fossa
2. Patient AP, cassette under flexed knee, central ray directed cephalad to knee, perpendicular to tibia
3. Patient PA, patella parallel to film, heel rotated 5 to 10º lateral, central ray perpendicular to knee joint

(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(B) 1 and 2 only

Knee arthrography may be performed to demonstrate a
1. torn meniscus.
2. Baker's cyst.
3. torn rotator cuff.
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(A) 1 and 2 only

Which of the following articulations may be described as diarthrotic?
1. Knee
2. Intervertebral joints
3. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 1 and 3 only

Which of the following statements are true regarding Figure 2-28?
1. The radiograph was made in the RAO position.
2. The central ray should enter more inferiorly.
3. The sternum should be projected onto the right side of the thorax.
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3
(Ballinger & Frank, vol 1, pp 274-277)

(A) 1 and 2 only

Which of the following would be the best choice for a right shoulder exam to rule out fracture?
(A) Internal and external rotation
(B) AP and tangential
(C) AP and AP axial
(D) AP and scapular Y

(D) AP and scapular Y

Which of the following statements regarding the radiograph in Figure 2-3 is (are) true?
1. The tibial eminences are well visualized.
2. The intercondyloid fossa is demonstrated between the femoral condyles.
3. The femorotibial articulation is well demonstrated.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 1 and 3 only
(D) 2 and 3 only
(Ballinger & Frank, vol 1, p 290)

(C) 1 and 3 only

The structure(s) best demonstrated on an AP axial projection of the skull with the central ray directed 40 to 60º caudally is (are) the
(A) entire foramen magnum and the jugular foramina.
(B) petrous pyramids.
(C) occipital bone.
(D) rotundum foramina.

(A) entire foramen magnum and the jugular foramina.

AP stress studies of the ankle may be performed
1. to demonstrate fractures of the distal tibia and fibula.
2. following inversion or eversion injuries.
3. to demonstrate a ligament tear.
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 2 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 2 and 3 only

In the AP axial projection (Towne method) of the skull, with the central ray directed 30º caudad to the orbitomeatal line (OML) and passing midway between the external auditory meatus, which of the following is best demonstrated?
(A) Occipital bone
(B) Frontal bone
(C) Facial bones
(D) Basal foramina
(Fig. 2-40)
(Ballinger & Frank, vol 2, p 270)

(A) Occipital bone

Lateral deviation of the nasal septum may be best demonstrated in the
(A) lateral projection.
(B) PA axial (Caldwell method) projection.
(C) parietoacanthial (Waters' method) projection.
(D) AP axial (Grashey / Towne method) projection.

(C) parietoacanthial (Waters' method) projection.

Which of the following structures is (are) located in the LUQ?
1. Stomach
2. Spleen
3. Cecum
(A) 1 only
(B) 2 only
(C) 1 and 2 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(C) 1 and 2 only

Which of the following equipment is necessary for ERCP?
1. A fluoroscopic unit with spot film and tilt table capabilities
2. A fiberoptic endoscope
3. Polyethylene catheters
(A) 1 and 2 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

Which of the following criteria is (are) required for visualization of the greater tubercle in profile?
1. Epicondyles parallel to the film
2. Arm in external rotation
3. Humerus in AP position
(A) 1 only
(B) 1 and 3 only
(C) 2 and 3 only
(D) 1, 2, and 3

(D) 1, 2, and 3

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