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hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 020)

critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 024)

theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 024)

hypothesis

a testable prediction, often implied by a theory. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)

operational definition

a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)

replication

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 025)

case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 026)

survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 027)

false consensus effect

the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 028)

population

all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 028)

random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 028)

naturalistic observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 029)

correlation

a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to 1. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 030)

scatterplot

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation). (Also called a scattergram or scatter diagram.) (Myers Psychology 8e p. 031)

illusory correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 033)

experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 036)

control condition

the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)

double-blind procedure

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)

experimental condition

the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)

placebo [pluh-SEE-bo] effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)

random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 037)

dependent variable

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 038)

independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 038)

mean

the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 041)

median

the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 041)

mode

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 041)

range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 042)

standard deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 042)

statistical significance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 043)

culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 045)

hindsight bias

tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.

theory

set of assumptions used to explain phenomena & offered for scientific study

hypothesis

testable prediction, often implied by a theory

operational definition

statement of procedures used to define research variables which helps to enable replication

replication

repeating of research study to determine if its finding extends to other participants and circumstances

case study

descriptive research technique in which one person or a small group is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principles

survey

research method in which info is obtained by asking many individuals a fixed set of questions

false consensus effect

tendency to overestimate extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

population

all cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study

random sample

sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

naturalistic observation

descriptive research that involves observing and recording behavior without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

correlation

measure of the extent to which two factors vary together which can be positive or negative or non

scatterplot

graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables.

illusory correlation

perception of a correlation between variables where none exists.

experiment

research method in which investigator manipulates one or more factors (IV) to observe effect on some behavior or mental process (DV)

control condition

condition of experiment that contrasts with experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.

double-blind procedure

experimental procedure in which both research participants and research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.

experimental condition

condition of experiment that exposes participants to treatment, that is, to one version of the IV

placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.

dependent variable

variable that may change in response to manipulations of the IV (what is measured)

independent variable

experimental factor that is manipulated; variable whose effect is being studied.

mean

arithmetic average of a distribution,

median

middle score in a distribution; half scores are above it and half are below it.

mode

most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.

range

difference between highest and lowest scores in a distribution.

standard deviation

computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.

statistical significance

statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance - expressed as p or sig.

null hypothesis

hypothesis that states there is no difference between two or more sets of data making it opposite of the research hypothesis

single-blind procedure

procedure in which info that could introduce bias the result is withheld from participants, but experimenter will be in full possession of facts

extraneous variables

any variables other than IV variable that seem likely to influence the DV

confounding of variables

when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects.

quasi-experiment

researchers takes subjects & conditions as they naturally occur, with little if any control over what happens.

cross-sectional research

people of different ages are compared to one another at a single point in time

longitudinal research

research in which the same people are re-studied and re-tested over a long period

reliability

extent to which a test yields consistent results - a measure is repeatable

validity

extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to - test accuracy

test-retest reliability

if you take the same test 2x's & you get the same results it shows ______ reliability

alternate form reliability

A type of reliability, where different versions of same instrument are used and scores are compared

split half reliability

A test is divided into 2 halves and scores on the halves are compared to see if test is consistent within itself. Ex. compare odds & evens

inter-rater reliability

More than one individual scores same test, regardless of who rates test - scores should be the same for _____ reliability

construct validity

Extent to which scores suggest that a test is actually measuring an ABSTRACT theoretical idea (such as anxiety, personality, introversion, etc.).

content validity

degree to which test is representative of total domain its supposed to cover.

criterion validity

form of validity in which a psychological measure is able to predict some future behavior or is meaningfully related to some other measure

face validity

measures whether a test looks like it tests what it is supposed to test as determined by a quick look or evaluation by a non expert

nominal data

data of categories only. Data cannot be arranged in an ordering scheme. (Gender, Race, Religion)

ordinal data

data exists in categories that are ordered but differences cannot be determined or they are meaningless. (Example: 1st, 2nd, 3rd)

interval data

differences between values can be found, but is NO absolute ZERO. Examples: temperature F, time

ratio data

data with an absolute 0. Ratios are meaningful. (Length, Width, Weight, Distance)

Hawthorne Effect

change in subject's behavior caused simply by awareness of being studied

positive correlation

correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in same direction.

negative correlation

association between increases in one variable and decreases in another

correlational study

research project designed to discover degree to which two variables are related to each other

z score

in a normal distribution it tells you how far a number is above or below mean in terms of standard deviations.

positive (right) skew

skewed distribution where data has many more scores toward the lower end of the distribution

negative (left) skew

skewed distribution with many more scores on the higher end of the distribution

operational definition

statement that describes how to measure a particular variable or define a particular term specifically in a study

social desirability bias

tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.

random assignment

Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups.

stratified sample

sample drawn in such a way that known subgroups within a population are represented in proportion to their numbers in general population

experimenter bias

expectations by researcher that might influence results of experiment or its interpretation

frequency histogram

bar graph that shows frequency distributions

frequency polygon

type of line graph that shows frequency distributions

ANOVA

statistical method for making simultaneous comparisons between two or more means

correlation coefficient

statistical measure of strength of association between two variables ranging from -1.0 to 1.0

illusory correlation

perception of relationship where none exists.

r

Symbol used for Pearson Correlation Coefficient ranges from -1.0 to +1.0

Type I error

Error of rejecting null hypothesis when in fact it is true (also called a "false positive"). You think you found a cause effect relationship but ONE IS NOT THERE

Type II error

error of failing to reject a null hypothesis when in fact it is false (also called a "false negative"). You think there is NO CAUSE EFFECT but THERE IS

cohort effects

Effects of being born and raised in a particular time or situation where all other members of your group has similar experiences makes your group unique from others

debriefing

giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed needed for deception

deception

method by which participants are misinformed or misled about study's methods and purposes - must be told truth about this in debriefing

confederates

"fake subjects" that look & behave like real subjects in study.

n

Symbol used to represent the total number of subjects in a research study

p<.05

results of experiment are SIGNIFICANT - they are not likely caused by chance

percentile rank

Percentage of scores falling at or below a specific score.

normal distribution

bell-shaped curve that results when values of a trait in a population are plotted against their frequency

empiricism

view that science flourishes through observation and experiment.

scientific method

series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions

overconfidence effect

we overestimate our accuracy and our changes of success and ability to predict and explain

random selection

procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate

wording effects

when a specific word used in a question affects how respondents answer the question or the order of the questions

meta analysis

procedure for statistically combining results of many different research studies

quasi experiment

a research method that looks like an experiment BUT subjects are not randomly assigned to control and experimental groups (no cause and effect can be drawn)

random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups

case study

in-depth, intensive investigation of individual or small group of people which involves interviews and personal interpretations by researcher. It may also be supplemented with psychological or medical tests

psychological test

measuring device or procedure designed to measure psychology-related variables. A measurement that results in a score or result that is standardized

wording effects

occur when the questions asked on a sample survey are confusing or leading

controls

factors in an experiment that are unchanged for both the control group and the experimental group

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