Psychology Exam

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Psychology is the study of what two things?

behavior & mental processes

What phenomena do psychologists study?

sensation perception & cognition

On what do they rely to answer their question?

scientific method

What different kinds of psychologists are there?

pg 7

What kinds of behaviors/thought processes would each study?

pg 7

What new subfield of psychology involves the study of biology?

Clinical Neuropyschology

How is a psychiatrist different than a psychologist

psychologist has a medical degree and can prescribe medication

What does gestalt mean?

perception organized in the mind

Who was Anna Freud?

bettered conditions in mental asylums

What is determinism?

idea that people's behavior is determined by outside factors

What is free will and which psychologist is most involved with it?

caused by choices made freely by a person

What do most psychologists believe concerning nature vs. nurture?

both

What is meant by nature vs. nurture?

nature- decided since birth
nurture- decided by environment

What are the components of the scientific method?

1) Identify questions of interest
2) Formulate an explanation
3) Carry out research
4) Communicate the findings

What is diffusion of responsibility?

A person is less likely to respond to a situation when other people are present
Responsibility is diffused to other people

What are correlation coefficients

relationship that shows strength and direction between two variables

What is the control group?

receives no treatment

What is a placebo?

sugar pill given to control group
false treatment

What is a neuron?

nerve cells

What is the name of the space between neurons called?

synapse

How do neurons communicate?

neurotransmitters

What is produced when runners get their "high"?

endorphins

Of what are the brain and spinal cord a part of?

the CNS

What is the function of the sympathetic nervous system?

prepare body for stressful situations

What does one study in the field of behavioral genetics?

Effects of heredity on behavior

What do the adrenal glands and pancreas regulate?

regulates insulin, glucagon and metabolism

What is biofeedback?

learned control through conscious thinking

What is sensation?

activation of the sense organs by a source of physical activity

What is perception?

What brain makes of sensation;
sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli by the sense organs

What is absolute threshold?

smallest detection of stimulus

What is adaptation?

Adjustment in sensory capacity after prolonged exposure to stimuli;
Accomadation to stimuli

What usually takes place during REM sleep?

dreaming

What did Sigmund Freud believe dreams to be?

unfulfilled wishes and desires

How is narcolepsy different from insomnia?

Insomnia - difficulty sleeping
Narcolepsy - uncontrollable sleeping that occurs while someone is awake

What is sleep apnea?

condition in which person has difficulty breathing during sleep

What is seasonal affect disorder?

Depression in which feelings of despair and loneliness increase during the winter time

What are daydreams and on what do they usually focus?

Fantasies constructed while awake
Focus on events relevant to person's life

What is the state of being more receptive to the suggestions of others?

Hypnosis

What do nicotine, caffeine, and heroine have in common?

all addictive

What is an amphetamine and what effects does it have on the taker?

stimulates NS energy alertness

What is the most common depressant?

alcohol

Heroine addiction is often treated with which drug?

methadone

What is the criticism of that treatment for heroine addiction?

users become addicted to methodone

What is the most common hallucinogen?

marijuana

What are the effects of ecstasy use?

peacefulness and calm

What drug is associated with flashbacks?

LSD

What is learning

acquisition of knowledge through study

What was significant about the 1920 research using Little Albert?

showed that fear could be learned/taught

When a conditioned response no longer occurs he behavior has been

extinct

The sudden reappearance of a response is known as

spontaneous recoil

What is generalization?

Process that makes stimuli similar to the original stimuli produce the same response

What is operant conditioning?

Learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on favorable or unfavorable consequences;
Learning voluntary actions to produce a desirable outcome

Who is most closely associated with operant conditioning?

B.F. Skinner

What is the law of effect?

Responses leading to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated

What is reinforcement?

strengthening a response

What schedules of reinforcement are there and when do they occur?

Continuous, partial, fixed ratio, variable ratio

What is a disadvantage of using punishment to change behavior?

Ineffective if not done immediantly after the bad behavior

What is used to decrease the probability of a behavior occurring again?

Punishment

What is the difference between a positive reinforcer and a negative one?

pr= adding somethi.g
Nr= taking something away

What is stimulus control?

A behavior is reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus but not in its absence

What is shaping?

Teaching complex behavior step by step with rewards

What does behavior modification seek to accomplish?

Increase favorable behaviors and decrease unwanted ones

What is a cognitive map?

Seeing a map inside your mind

Who most closely associated with learning through observation?

Albert Bandura

What is recording information so that is usable later called?

Encoding

The maintenance of information is known as

Storage

What is the difference between ionic and echoic memories?

iconic memory is visual while echoic is auditory

What branch of psychology studies thinking, language, reasoning and judging?

Cognitive Psychology

What is a prototype?

a typical, highly representative samples of a concept

What is the difference between heuristic and an algorithm?

an algorithm guarantees a solution while a heuristic has the possibility of a solution

What is an availability heuristic?

judging the probability of something based off of how easy it is to recall it from memory

What are the 3 types of problems that cognitive psychologists have identified?

arrangement problems, problems of inducing structure, and transformation problems

What is means-end analysis?

repeated testing for differences between the desired outcome and what currently exists

What does it mean to be functionally fixed?

the tendency to think of something only in terms of it's typical use

What are mental sets?

the tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist

What kind of thinking is linked with creativity?

Divergent

Dependence on logic and knowledge for answers is known as what kind of thinking?

Convergent

What is a confirmation bias?

the tendency to favor information that supports one's initial hypothesis and ignore contradictory information that supports alternate hypothesis or solutions

What is self-fulfilling prophecy?

Thinking about something so much it happens

What is the name of the system of rules that helps us express our thoughts?

grammar

What is the smallest unit of speech that affects meaning?

phonemes

Why is creative thinking helpful?

Helps generate unusual responces, "think outside the box"

What is syntax?

ways in which words are formed into sentences

At what age does the average baby begin to babble?

3 months

What is telegraphic speech?

sentences in which not critical words are left out

What is over generalization?

the phenomenon by which children apply language rules even when application is done with error

Who believed that all world's languages shared a common grammar

Noam Chomsky

What is the difference between fluid and crystallized intelligence?

Fluid intelligence reflects one's abilities while crystallized intelligence is gained through life experiences

Who is responsible for the theory of multiple intelligence?

Howard Gardner

Who created the first intelligence test?

Alfred Binet

What are some uses of intelligence tests?

identifying students with special needs in school, diagnosing cognitive difficulties, and helping people make optimal education/vocational choices

What is emotional intelligence?

the set of skills that underline the accurate assessment , evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions

What is kinesthetic intelligence?

Ability to do physical action

Speed of information retrieval increases with intelligence in most cases. True or false?

true

What is the difference between intelligence tests and achievement tests?

intelligence tests test the potential of the person while the achievement tests test what someone can do

What is test reliability?

a test's ability to measure consistently

What type of test has norms that allow comparisons among test-takers?

standardized tests

What is down syndrome?

mental retardation caused by an extra chromosome

What causes sudden infant death syndrome?

the cause is unknown

Most people who are cognitively impaired have IQs between what two numbers?

55-65

What is the most common cause of cognitive impairment (metal retardation)?

Fetal alcohol syndrome, genetics

Socially how are most intellectually gifted people?

very normal

When we study what forces drive human behavior what are we studying?

motivation

Are emotions connected to motivation?

yes

What is the instinct approach concerning motivation?

motivation controlled is by instincts (inborn patterns of behavior)

List some primary drives.

sleep, hunger, sex, thirst

What is the drive- reduction approach to motivation?

motivation is caused by the need to fulfill biological requirements

What is the arousal approach?

The belief that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity, increasing or reducing as necessary

What is homeostasis?

the bodies tendency to maintain it's internal state

What is the incentive approach?

goals/desires to obtain external goals motivates us

What is the cognitive approach?

our thoughts, emotions, etc. motivates us

What is the difference between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards?

intrinsic = enjoyment
extrinsic = money, prizes, etc.

What is the sequence of Maslow's hierarchy of needs

physiological needs, safety, love/belongingness, esteem, self-actualization

What does it mean to be self-actualizing?

feeling fulfilled by realizing one's highest potential

What is the difference between anorexia and bullimia?

anorexia is when you eat little or nothing while bulimia is that you purge what you eat

What kinds of classes would a student with a strong need for achievement choose in regards to the difficulty level?

medium difficulty classes

If a client is asked to write about pictures what projective is he completing?

Thematic Appression Test

What is the Cannon-Bard Theory?

The beliefe that both physiological arousal and emotional experience are produced simultaneously by the nerve stimulus

What is the Schachter-Singer Theory?

The belief that emotions are determined jointly by a nonspecific kind of physiological arousal and its interpretation, based on environmental cues

What was the finding of the 1974 Dutton and Aaoron experiment?

emotional experiences are a joint function of physiological arousal and the labeling of that arousal

What does a developmental psychologist study?

patterns of growth and changes that occur

Who was the founder of psychoanalytic theory?

Sigmund Frued

What kind of psychologist studies a person's characteristics?

Personality Psychology

What are the three parts of personality according to Freud?

ID, Ego, and Superego

What is the pleasure principle?

the goal is immediate reduction of tension and the maximization of satisfaction

What is the reality principle?

instinctual energy is restrained to maintain the safety of the individual and help integrate the person into society

What are the stages of development in Freud's theory?

oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital

What the main conflict in each stage?

oral: weaning
anal: toilet training
phallic: oedipal conflict
latency: none
genital: finding a mate/ adult sexuality

What is the Oedipal conflict?

being interested in the mother and wanting the father dead/out of the picture and vice versa

What do girls envy according to Freud?

penis

Who took issue with his theory and what replaced the original in her theory?

Karen Horney, power envy

The basis for many of our problems is due to what according to Freud?

fixation

The onset of neurosis is caused by what according to Freud?

anxiety

What does it mean to be in denial?

refusing to accept an anxiety producing piece of information

What is displacement?

expression of an unwanted feeling is redirected from a more threatening, powerful person to a weaker one

What is regression?

people behave in an earlier stage of development than their chronicle age

What is projection?

people attribute unwanted feelings to someone else

Who has taught us about our collective unconscious?

Carl Jung

What is an archetype

universal symbolic representation of a particular person, object, or experience

Who is responsible for the superiority complex?

Alfred Adler

How did Karen Horney think personality was shaped?

social & cultural factors

What were Gordon Alport's categories of traits?

cardinal
central
secondary

What does Hans Eysenck feel are the dimensions of personality?

extraversion, nueroticism, and psychotism

What is the humanistic view of personality?

innate goodness, we strive to be all that we can be

What is the social cognitive approach to how we learn behaviors?

theorists that emphasize the influence of a person's cognitions, as well as observation of other's behavior, in determining personality

What is the difference between self-esteem and self-efficacy?

self esteem is a component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative self evaluations while self efficacy is the belief in one's personal capabilities

Who was responsible for the term "maximizing human potentials"?

Carl Rodgers
Abraham Maslow

What is unconditional positive regard?

an attitude of acceptance and respect on te part of an observer, no matter what a person says or does

What do health psychologists feel is the relation between mind and body?

a healthy mind = a healthy body

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