A fight over the language of the border agreement in a treaty or a boundary contract
A conflict over the location of the boundary
A conflict over the way a boundary should operate or function
A fight over the resources that may not be divided by the border, such as natural gas reserves beneath the soil
boundary that existed before the human culture grew into current form
coundary that grows after significant settlemets has occurred, rather than existing before the growth of human cultures, as with an antecedent boundary
boundary forcibly put on a landscape by outsiders
boundary that no longer functions as a boundary but only as a reminder of a line †gat one divided space
definition (boundary process)
A phase in the boundary location in which the exact location of a boundary is legally described and negotiated
delimitation (boundary process)
A phase in which a boundarys definition is drawn on a map
demarcation (boundary process)
Phase in which the boundary is visibly marked on the landscape by a fence, line, sign, wall, or other means
natural/ physical boundary
Political boundary that separates territories according to natural features in the landscape, such as mountains, deserts, or rivers
a political boundary that follows some cultural border, such as linguistic or religious border
Political boundary that marks changes in the cultural landscape, such as boundary dividing territory according to religion or landscape
Straight line political boundary seperating territories that do not relate to. Ultras or physical features
Area consisting of two or more countries located between two larger countries in conflict
state or group of states that exists within a sphere of competition between larger states
Force that divides a states people and regions
an attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for the state
Process of transferring power from the central government to regional governments
Division of a region or states to small units, usually along ethnic lines
attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory
control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society
conference of berlin (1884)
Regulated trade and colonization in Africa. It formalized the scramble to gain colonies in Africa and set up boundaries for each country's colonies
treaty of westphalia (1649)
(1648) European settlements that ended the Thirty Years' War, negotiated in the Westphalian towns of Mnster and Osnabrck. The deliberations began in 1644 and ended in 1648 with two assemblies that produced the treaty between Spain and the Dutch (signed January 30) and another between Emperor Ferdinand III, the other German princes, France, and Sweden (signed October 24). Territorial changes gave Sweden control of the Baltic Sea, ensured France a firm frontier west of the Rhine River, and provided their allies with additional lands. Independence was confirmed for the United Provinces of the Netherlands and for the Swiss Confederation. The treaties also confirmed the Peace of Augsburg and extended the religious toleration of Lutherans to include toleration of the Reformed (Calvinist) Church. The Holy Roman Empire was forced to recognize its German princes as absolute sovereigns in their own dominions, which greatly weakened its central authority
wallerstein (world system analysis/ core-periphery)
Viewpoint that the situation in one country is directly linked to that countrys role in the greater capitalistic system, divided into core states, peripheral states, and semi peripheral states.
domino theory (cold war)
Notion that democratic allies must protect lands from falling to the communists because one such communist acquisition creates others, ultimately resulting in communist domination of the world. This theory led to the containment doctrine, intended to keep the communists from acquiring new loads, such as Vietnam
organic state (ratzel/ irrendentism)
Movement to reunite a nations homeland when part of it extends into another states borders
Geopoltical theory that Eurasia was the world island and the key to dominating the world. Ruling this world island required controlling eastern Europe, it is linked to the domino theory
Nicolas spykmans theory defining the rimland to be all of Eurasia periphery, not its core of Russia and central Asia. This rimland is the key to controlling the world island.
an internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of the local government
Organizational structure comprising a weak central government and regional. Governments holding the majority of power.
Organizational structure in which one main governemntl decision making body exists for the entire state. Regions within the country may have their won local governments, but they are weak and usually serve only as administrative organs of the primary government based in the country's capital
Captial city built by a state to achieve a national goal
the largest settlement in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second ranking settlement
process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power
a distinct territorial subdivision for holding a separate election for one or more seats in a legislative body.
a new apportionment (especially a reallotment of congressional seats in the United States on the basis of census results)
Growing trend of three or more countries forming an alliance for cultural, economic, or military reasons
Supranational organization of nearly 200 member-states bound together to create collective security through diplomatic cooperation
Supranational organization if nearly 25 member states in Europe that have integrated for improved economic and political cooperation
North American Treaty Organization
Supranational organization formed during the cold war to combat the expansion of communist states
organization of pertroleum exporting companies
alegeria, angola, ecuador, iran, iraq, kuqait, libyam, nigeria, quatar, saudi arabia, uae, venezula
world trade organization
an international organization based in Geneva that monitors and enforces rules governing global trade
an international organization of independent Arab states formed in 1945 to promote cultural and economic and military and political and social cooperation
north american free trade association
(NAFTA) economic union of the US, Canada, and Mexico that eliminates many tariffs between the three countries to stimulate trade
economic community of west african states
The organization established in 1975 among the sixteen governments in West Africa. lts goals are to strengthen and broaden the economies in the region through the removal of trade barriers
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
nation without a territory to call its own
group of people who share a common culture and identity as a cohesive group
a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality
a state that encompasses a very small area of land
control over a space and the assumption of ownership to that space
a state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantyl
a state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
a state that is long and narrow in shape
a state with a jut of land that usually goes out to the sea, but does not have to
a state that completely surrounds another one
a state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea
a territory whose geographical boundaries lie entirely within the boundaries of another territory
a territory legally or politically attached to another territory with which it is not physically contiguous
United nations Convention of the law of the sea
coastal states can stake their claims to the sea up to 12 nautical miles from their shorelines. however, ships from other countries have a right to pass through these waters.
a coastal state can claim up to 200 nautical miles of territory beyn its shoeline, over which the ste has economic control to explore and mine resouces.
where thre i not enough water for each country on theeir side to have 2)00 nautical miles of an exclusive economiv zone, he countries will divide up thw water equally.
law of the sea
Law establishing states rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources.
median line prinicpla
when there is not enough water for each country on opposite sides of the sea to have 200 nautical miles of excluive economic zon, the two or more countries will divde up hre water equally
exclusive economic zone
200 nautical miles of territory off a coastal states shore in which that state has economic control to exploe and mine natural esurces that may be in those waters
The population growth through gender and age.
the ratio of of the number of farmers to the total amounf of land suitable for agriculture
land that is suitable fo farming
the total number of people divided by the total land area
the number of peple a country can support or sustin
migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previouslyu migrated there
a group of people of the same age
crude birth rate
(CBR) the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 peoplealive in the society
crude death rate
(CDR) the total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a society
occurs during the daily routine from ones home and back. routine, normal migration
the number of people under the age of 15 and over the age of 64, compared ot the number of people active in the labor force
the scientific study of population characteristics
somestimes called hidden momentum, occurs in many underdeveloped countries when the population continues to grow even after replacement level fertility rate is reach
the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
the portion of the earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
migration from a location
a disease affecting a more local region acutely
the more people added the faster the population grows. this exponent
friction of distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between 2 places.
a model that holds that the potiential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversly related to the distance people must travel to reach the service
questworker/ migrant labor
a worker that migrates to other places to find more work in order to support their families
migration of a location
infant mortality rate
(IMR) the total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society
internally displaced persons
sometimescalled intranatuinal refugees, bandon their homes but reman in the country
flee their country and move to another
intervening obtacles/ opportunities
obstacles that get in the way of the migration and opportunities that arise that are better than the final location, and result in the migrant staying
interregional/ internal migration
migration within a region/ state
forced/ involuntary migration
permanent movemnet compelled usually by cultural factors
the avergae number of years an individual can be expected to live, givern socuial, econmic and medical conditions. life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant is expected to live
linear/ arithmetic growth
Expansion that increases by the same amount during each time interval.
form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location
a pathway from a place or origin to a destination
people moving back to the place of origin from the new place
contemporary believers in Thomas Malthus's ideas. they call for sustainable population growth to be achieved through birth control teachings and regional attention to birth patterns
chinas anti-natalist polic that punished families for having more than one child
the number of people in an area exceeds the carrying capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
the number of people per unit of arable land
a bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
factor that induces people to move to a new location
6n to factor that induces people to leave old residences
rate of natural increase
(RNI) natural growth rate of a population, which is CBR minus the CDR expressed as a percentage. A positive Rni indicates a growing population, whereas a negative RNI indicates a population reducing in size. An RNI equal to zero indicates a stabalizing population
people who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race,religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion
sum of money sent by a migrant to his/ her family back home
total fertility ratw
(TFR) the avergae number of child a woman will have throughout her child bearing years.
long migration that occurs as a journey of smaller steps from one place to another until the final destination is reached
laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year
permanent movement undertaken by choice
zero population growth
(ZPG) a decline of the total fetility rate to the point where the natural incerase rates falls to zero
killing of one racial or ethnic group by another
the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance if a phenomenan with increasing distance fomr its origin
islands of development
Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure
The migration of a country's population from primarily rural to urban in search of better jobs and living conditions.
large scale emigration by talented people
an English economist who argued that increases in population (geometric) would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (arthimetic) (1766-1834)
hunting and gathering
practice by nomadic people who do not remain stationary but follow herds pf wild animals and forage for plants for survival
the deliberate effort to modify a portion of the earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain
commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership of large corporations
agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm
farming that involves large-scale operations, known as plantations or agricultural estates; specializing in the farming of one or two high-demand crops for export, usually to more developed regions
type of farming involving wheat, barley, vine, and tree crops, as well as grazing for sheep and goats; primarily associated with the region near the meditterranean sea and places with climates that have hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters
reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants
When animals are tamed and used for food and profit.
a form of subsistance agricultre based on herding domesticated animals
the seasonal migration of livestock between the ountsins and lowland pastues
the growth of milk based products for the marketplace
commercial grazing or the aising of animals on a plot of land which they graze
farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single crop, year after year
reprodcution of plabnts through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization
practice of mixing many types of seeds on the same plot of land
left unplowed and unseeded during a growing season
An agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area.
subsistence extensive agriculture
using a large amount of land to farm food for the farmer's family to eat
a patch of land cleared for planting through shifting cultivation
A system of effective agriculture used throughout Mesoamerica that relies on crop rotation and the planting of multiple crops in a single field. The term is derived from a Nahuatl word meaning 'field.'
slash and burn
another name for shifting cultivationm so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
subsistence intensive agriclturee
cultivating a small amount of land very efficiently to produce food for the farmer's family
commercial gardfening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a middle english word for bartering
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
Grains that can be stored and used throughout the year
the process by which food goes from the fields to the consumer
series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is on world market
any action that relates to the making, buying, and selling of goods and services
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
Refers to the section of the economy where business activity is concerned with the provision of goods and services to customers. In modern societies, it is the largest sector in terms of employment and output
Service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital. Examples include finance, administration, insurance, and legal services.
Service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill. Examples include scientific research and high-level management.
agriculture hearth theory
Southeast Asia; China; India; Turkey-Iran;
Mediterranean; Ethiopia; Mexico/Central America;
neolithic agricultural revolution
This social revolution was also known as the New Stone Age where people changed from hunting and gathering food to domesticating animals and cultivating land as farmers.
second agricultural revolution
tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient. corresponed with the industrial revolution and began in england.
third agricultural revolution (IR36)
currently in progress, development of genetically modified organisms; a genetically modified rice in Japan that produces higher yields than the normal kind of rice
dispersed settlement pattern
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages
range and township
a square normally 6 miles wide on each side. the land ordinance of 1785 divided much of the united states into a series of townships.
metes and bounds
A method of land description which involves identifying distances and directions and makes use of both the physical boundaries and measurements of the land.
long lot survey
system that divided land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals
von thunen model
A model that explains the location of agricultureal activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. A process of spatial competition allocates various farming activities into rings around a central market city, with profit-earning capability the determining force in how far a crop locates from the market
the area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied
genetically modified organisms
crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods
rapid diffusing of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertiliers
increase in population would stimulate technologists to increase food production
-suggested that any rise in population will increase demand for food and so act as an incentive to change agrarian techno to produce more food
the use of natural substances rather than chemical fertilizers and pesticides to enrich the soil and grow crops
places in urban areas where individuals don't have access to healthy food options like grocery stores; closest to fast food places
degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actiobs life excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting
a process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
A structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. Based on the idea that certain types of political and economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop.
human development index
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
interference to development
wars, poor economic systems, conflicting groups
gross domestic product
(GDP) the value of the total output of goods and services priduced in a country in a given time period (normally 1 year).
gross national income
The total value of goods and services produced by a country per year plus net income earned abroad by its nationals; formerly called "gross national product."
formal/ informal economies
Formal economy entails official employment, with records,and most importantly, taxation by the state. Informal economies on the other hand, are unofficial, lack documentation, and most significantly, do not pay taxes tot he government, and as such do not provide corresponding social benefits.
Informal includes people such as street vendors and others who are not part of the organized economy
Per unit of population; per person
Model that refers to economy of a state that does not require any outside aid, support, or interaction, for survival
international trade model
A source of development that wants countries to focus on specific exports, that they have in abundance and exploit it.
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
international monetary fund
An international organization of 183 countries, established in 1947 with the goal of promoting cooperation and exchange between nations, and to aid the growth of international trade.
an international organization made up of groups or individuals, recruited across state boundaries, joined either by profession or interest
the use of very small loans to small groups of individuals, often women, to stimulate economic development
structural adjustment programs
stipulations that require the country recievingan international loan to make economic changes in order to use the loan
balance between the pace of human development and the environment that supports that development. A level of development that does not destroy the earth's ability ro regenerate its resource supply for future generations of inhabitants of the earth
1. The traditional society: defines a country that hasn't started a process of development. A traditional society consists of agriculture and nonprofitable activities. 2. The preconditions for takeoff: process of development begins when an elite group initiates innovative economic activities; will ultimately stimulate an increase in productivity. 3. The takeoff: rapid growth; few takeoff industries achieve technical advances and become productive, while some are still dominated by traditional practices. 4. Drive to maturity: modern technology diffuses to wide variety of industries. Workers become more skilled and specialized. 5. Age of mass consumption: economy shifts from production of heavy industry to consumer goods.
the business of providing services to tourists
the organized action of making of goods and services for sale
performance of duties or provision of space and equipment helpful to others
social and economic change that began in England in the 1760s when teh industrial geography of england changed significantly and later diffused to toher parts of western Europe. In this period of rapid socioeconomic change, machines replaced human labor and new sources of inanimate energy were tapped. Coal was the leading energy source, fueling the industrial revolution in England's textile-focused industrial explosion
massive corporation operating a collection of smaller companies that provide it with specific services in its production processes
clumping together of industries for mutual advantage
high tech corridors/ technopoles
place where technology and computer industries agglomerate
unclumping of industries because of the negative effects and higher costs associated with overcrowding
industry not bound by locational constraints and able to choose to locate wherever it wants
theory that industries choose locations based on where their competitors are located
special economic zone on mexico's northern border with the united states
export porcessing zone/ free trade zone
region of a less-developed country that offers taxbreaks and loosened labor restrictions to attract export dirven production processes, such as factories producing goods for foreign markets
special economic zone
region offering special tax breaks, eased environmental restrictions, and other incentives to attract foreign businesses and investment
Form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly.
just in time delivery
Method of inventory management made possible by efficient transportation and communication systems, whereby companies keep on hand just what they need for near-term production, planning that what they need for longer-term production will arrive when needed.
emphasizes the importance of transport costs in determining where a factory or plant would be located in relation to the sources of raw materials and the market area, represented in terms of a locational triangle: Gross, Pure, Ubiquitous Raw Materials.
market oriented processing
result of locating weight-gaining industries near the marketplace for the heavier product
weight losing processing
manufacturing process that takes raw materials and convets them into a productthat is lighter than the raw materials that went into making the finishes product
weight gaining processing
process that takes raw materials and creates a heavier final product
material oriented processing
result of locating weight-losing industries near the supply of raw resources
break in bulk point
commonly, a transfer point on a transport route where the type of carrier changes and where large-volume shipments are reduced in size.
Big commercial center for importing and exporting commodities. A place where goods were brought for storage before being exchanged.
group of new industrial countries comprising taiwan, south korea, hong kong, and singapore
Brazil, Russia, India, and China are the four fast-growing markets that represent important opportunities.
The northern industrial states of the United States, including Ohio, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, in which heavy industry was once the dominant economic activity. In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, these states lost much of their economic base to economically attractive regions of the United States and to countries where labor was cheaper, leaving old machinery to rust in the moist northern climate.
major manufacturing regions
1. Eastern Anglo America, 2. Western and Central Europe, Eastern Europe, and Eastern Asia (see map given out in class)
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
central business dsitrict
original core of a city's economy, like the nucleus of a cell
concentric zone model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
A model or urban land use that places the central business district in the middle with wedge-shaped sectors radiating outwards from the center along transportation corridors.
multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
city whose primary identity is as a colony of an invading or conquering imperial power, often showing forced cultural imprints of the colonizer
Old colonial port zone surrounded by a commercial business district
Western commercial zone (dominated by Chinese merchants)
No formal central business district (CBD)
Hybrid sectors & zones growing rapidly
New Industrial parks on the outskirts of the city
developed in 1967 by t.g. mcgee
growth of areas of concentrated poverty in urban places
ghettos surrounding a larger city that are charcterized by poor health, infrastructure and people.
the clearing and rebuilding and redevelopment of urban slums
process in which older urban zones are rediscovered and renovated by people who move back into the inner city from their suburban fringes; resulting influx of new money raises prices and oushes out lower-oncome residents
metropolitan statistical area
area with a city of 50,000 or more people, together with adjacent urban communities that have strong ties to the central city.
primary census statistical area
In the U.S. all of the combined statistical areas plus all of the remaining metropolitan statistical areas and micropolitan statistical areas
Small country subdivisions, usually containing between 2,500 and 8,000 persons, delineated by the US Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.
urban peripheral model
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
self-sufficient urban area within a greater metropolitan complex; often develops on highway exits
dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc
diffusion of urban land use and lifestyle into formerly nonurban, often agricultural lands; has raised continued problems related to uneven development and chaning land use patterms
boundary encircling an urban place and limiting the sprawl of the city, forcing inward development nd reinvestment in a city's core
A city which is greater than two times the next largest city in a nation (or contains over one-third of a nation's population). The primate city is usually very expressive of the national culture and often the capital city.
rank size rule
in a region, the nth-largest city's population is 1/n the population of the region's largest city
central place theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
minimum number of people needed to feul a particular function's existence in a central place
maximum distance a person is willing to trvael to obtain a good or servuce
position of an object on the global grid; latitude and longitdue.
focused on the english culture
map that maintains direction but distorts other prpoerties; flat-plane-constructed map of each hemisphere; direction is accurate, and great circles are apparent
north, south, east, west
map that uses proportionality (i.e., space on the map) to show a particualr variable
chloropleth thematic map
map that shows a pattern of a variable, such as population density or voting patterns, by using various colors or degrees of shading
map drawn from memory
study f human-environment interaction
size of geographic units being represented on a map
pattern in which the interaction between two places declines as the distance between to places increases
necessary error resulting from trying to represent the roud, nearly spherical earth on a flat plane, or map
thematic map that uses dots to represent the frequency of a variable in a given area
equal area projection
map that maintains but distorts other properties
map that maintains distance but distorts other properties
region composed of areas that have a common (or uniform) cultural or physical feature; sometimes referred to as uniform regions
ggroup of places linked together by some function's influence on them after diffusing from a central node; sometimes reffered to as a nodal region
vernacular (perceptual) region
regions whose boundaries are determined by people's beliefs, not scientifically measurable process
friction of distance
degree to which distance interferes with some interaction
geographic information system
computer program that stores geographic data andproduces maps to show the data
global positioning system
system of satellites used to determine an xact location on the global grid
circles formed on the surface of the earth by a plane that passes through the center of the earth. the equator and every line of longitiude paired with its twin on the opposite side of the earth form rgeat circlesany arc of a great circle shows the shortest distace between two points on the earth's surface
greenwich mean time
baseline for time zones around the world, centered on the prime meridiem; sometimes called universal time
human environmental interaction
one theme of geography through which geographers analyze humans' imapct on their environment and their environment's impact on them
branch of geography primarily concerned with analyzing the structures, processes, and location of human creations and interactions with the earth
map displaying lines that connect points o equal value; for example, a map showing elevation levels
measures in degrees north and south from the equator, which is 0 degrees latitude. the north pole is 90 degrees north latitude, and the south pole is 90 degrees south latitude. lines of latitude never intersect, so geographers often call lines of latitude parallel
measured in degrees east and west of one line of longitude known as the prime meridian, the line of longitude that runs through england's greenwhich observatory. the prime meridiean represents 0 degreees londitude
two-dimensional model of the earth or a portino of its surface
map showing the shapes of the continents and landforms accuratley but drastically distoring the size (area) of the continents. for examples, greenalnd appears almost as large as africa
theme is geograohy involving the movement occuring in a space; movement of information, people, goods, and other phenomena
place from which a diffusing phenomenon spreads to toher places (its originating point).
branch of geography concerned with spatial analysis of the structures, processes, and locations of the earth's natural phenomena, like soil, climate, platns, and topography
theme in geography that involves the unique combinaatino of physical and ultural attributes that give each location on the earth its individual "stamp."
map showing common features like boundaries, roads, hgihways, mountains, and citites
theme in geopgrahy involving a spatial unitthat has any places sharing similar sharacteristics
directions commonly given by people, such as reight, left, up, and down, among many others
location of a place or object described in relatino to places or objects around it
technique of obtaining informatin about objects through the study of data collected by special instruments that are not physical contact with the objects being analyzed
map showing the world with slight distortions to all four properties, rather than having one proeprty correct andthe other three drastically distorted
sense of palce
person's perception of the human and physical attributes of a locationthat give it a unique indentity in that persons mind
internal physical and cultural characteristics of aplace, such as its terrain and dominant religions, among others
location (or centext) of a place relative to physical and cultural characterisitcs around it. the more interconnected a place is to other powerful places, the better is situation
proess in which goods, ideas, information, and people moce among places
increasing sense of accesibility AND connectivity that sems to be bringing humans in distances places closer together
process in which goods, ideas, informqation, and peole move among places
outlook through which geographers identify, explain,, and predict the human physical patterns in space and interconnectedss in differenct soaces
map that zeros in on one feature such as climte, population or voting patterns
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
A center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward.
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
a form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples down to others
a form of diffusion in which a cultural adaption is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
a religion identified with a particular ethnic group and largely exclusive to it
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
the interpretation of every word in the sacred texts as literal truth
A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
a pilgrim who journeys to Mecca
90% of Muslims, main branch of Islam; Majority sect in Islam; leaders chosen by the community based on religious knowledge and moral character
accept only the descendants of Ali as the true rulers of Islam; minority group in islam, but majority in iran
the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel
a religion with more than one god
separate religions that combine into a new religion; often borrow from the past and the present.
the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam
religion founded in the 6th century BC as a revolt against Hinduism
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme beingof many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a
the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
the ancient indigenous religion of Japan lacking formal dogma
the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
a religion with one god
a subdivision of a larger religious group
a journey to a sacred place
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
the belief in government by divine guidance
boundary that divides space between two or more religions
religions associated with the speakers of judaism, christianity, and islam, which are ogften described as semetic religions
a branch of the Indo European family of language
a branch of the Indo-European family of languages related to the Slavonic languages
hypothesis developed by British scholar Colin Renfrew where in he proposed that three areas in and near the first agricultural hearth, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to 3 lang. families:Europe's indo-European lang. North African and Arabian languages and the languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
process by which an extinct language is recreated
new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
using or knowing only one language
a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
a graphic character used in ideography
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate
a common language used by speakers of different languages
a variety of speech characterized by its own particular grammar or pronunciation, often associated with a particular geographical region
the tracking of sound shifts and hardening of consonants backward toward the original language
multilingual polyglot (multilingualism)
the act of using, or promoting the use of, multiple languages, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
A family of languages consisting of most of the languages of Europe as well as those of Iran, the Indian subcontinent, and other parts of Asia
This occurs when a language is no longer in use by any living people. Thousands of languages have become extinct over the eons since language first developed, but the process of language extinction has accelerated greatly during the past 300 years.
societies with very similar social, religious and political backgrounds
in arranged marriages in india, bride is killed for failure of father to pay dowry
The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape.
where a culture originates
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
a small area occupies by a distinctive minority culture
Defined by geographer Edward Relph as the loss of uniqueness of a place in the cultural landscape so that one place looks like the next.
The process through which something is given monetary value; occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy.
sense of place
state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character.
drawing used to represent a word
those European languages descended from Latin, namely French, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish
Languages (English, German, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish) that reflect the expansion of peoples out of Northern Europe to the west and south.
ideas, knowledge and beliefs that influence people's behavior
A related set of culture traits descriptive of one aspect of a society's behavior or activity (may be assoc. with religious beliefs or business practices).
boundary that divides space among different groups within a particular religion, such as among branches, demoninations, and sects.