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The development of chronic diseases

can be reduced by food choices along with lifestlye choices

organic nutrients

Fats, minerals, carbohydrates

Department of Health and Human Services

Nutrition related health objectives for the nation have been published by the...

Effects of physical activity on the body

Reduced risk of cardiovascualr diseases, faster wound healing, and increased body tissue.

protein and fat

energy yeilding nutrients

fat

the most energy rich of the nutriends

4

Carbohydrate and protein each contain ___ calories in a gram.

Processed

Foods that have been subjected to any process such as addition of additives, milling, or cooking are called ___ foods.

the convenience of meals that require little or no preparation

factor that influences food choices by individuals

scientific journals

the source of valid nutrition information

collect information and learn about your current behaviors

best action to take in the precontemplation stage of change

we have been successful in reducing the number of deaths from heart disease and stroke

When evaluating the effectiveness of the nutrition and physical activity objectives in Healthy People 2010, public health officials have found that___

vitamins

___do not yield usable energy.

determine what the nutrients and dietary intakes of the population in our country are

The main purpose of the national research projects, NHANES and CSFII, is to___

intervention study

Scientists have developed a new type of margarine containing plant ingredients they think will lower blood cholesterol levels in people who use the margarine. They want to test this by having some people use the new margarine for a while and then compare their cholesterol leverls with those of a group of people who use regular margarine. This is an example of what type of research desgin?

wait to apply the findings until they have been repeated and confirmed by scientists

You see a new finding about nutrition reported in your local newspaper. Based on this information you would___

minimum requirements, not recommendations

It is NOT true that the DRI are___

insufficient data exists to establish a value

If a nutrient does not have a Tolerable Upper Intake Level, this means that___

45-65

The DRI Committee recommended a diet that contains ___% of its calories from carbohydrates.

2,000- 2,500

The Daily Values reflect the needs of an average person consuming between ____ calories a day.

fruits and veggies, whole grains, and milk products

A major guideline for healthy people is to limit calorie intakes and obtain more and varied selections of___

numbers and sizes of servings to choose each day

Food group plans primarily dictate___

Discrentionary calorie allowance

___ may be spent on nutrient- dense foods, may be affected by physical activity level, and may be spent on added sugars.

more, greater

the ___ physically active you are, the ___ your discretionary calorie allowance

My Pyramid

This educational tool has been designed to help diet-planning individuals to create a diet more closely following the USDA Food Guide

calorie control

Exchange systems help primarily with___

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels

If you are using nutrient supplements, you should become familiar with this nutrient intake recommendations.

the recommended amounts will vary, depending on age, physical activity, and gender

When determining the amounts of food to eat from each group in the USDA Food Guide each day, you need to remember that___

two

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are intended for healthy adults and children ages ___ and older.

health maintenance, disease prevention

What are the DRI designed for?

cells

self- contained living entities

genes

determines the nature of the cell's work

3 days

Cells lining the digestive tract replace themselves every___

brain cells

This type of cells do NOT reproduce and if damaged by injury or disease are lost forever

blood and lymph

the body's circulating fluids

lungs

The blood picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide in the ___

insulin

When the pancreas detects a high concentration of the blood's sugar, glucose, it releases___

glands

secrete and release hormones into the body

stress response

Muscles tense up, liver pours forth glucose from its stores, and fat cells release fat. These are all apart of ___

fiber

The digestive tract needs ___, which provides bulk against which the muscles of the colon can work.

protein

The stomach's main function is the digestion of what nutrient?

villi and microvilli

In the intestinal tract, these trap the nutrient particles and absorb them into the cells.

kidneys

This organ excretes wastes from the body in urine.

nervous

This system reacts by releasing stored glucose from the liver suring the fight-or-flight response.

large intestine

As food moves through the digestive tract is spends the most time here.

constipation

What digestive issue would you consume foods with adequate fiber and drink enough water?

heartburn

You should drink liquids an hour before and after meals and eat smaller meals to help with this condition.

liver

Nutrients are delivered from the intestines through the circulatory system to the cells by transport through the blood to the ___ for chemical altering to make them better suited for use by the tissues.

preference for sweet tastes

Why would most people select cookies when given the choice between cookies, potato chips, and pickles?

fructose

monosaccharide responsible for the sweet taste of fruit

sucrose, maltose, lactose

Disaccharides

fiber, gylcogen, starch

complex carbohydrates

glucose

the most used monosaccharide inside the body

forms gels

Soluble fiber is "viscous" because___

control total calories

The best way to lose fat, maintain lean body tissues, and maintain the health of the body is to ___

fiber

Prevents constipation and hemorrhoids, reduces the risks of heart and artery disease, and prevents appendicitis and diverticulosis. All are effects of ___

fiber

Dehydration and limited absorption of iron are the harmful effects of too much ___

20-35

According to the American Dietetic Association, a desirable intake of fiber is ___ grams daily.

mouth

Digestion of most starch begins in the___

magnesium

Which nutrient is NOT required by law to add to refined grain products?

whole grain

Which term would you look for on a bread label to choose the most nutritious product?

ketone bodies

Products of the incomplete breakdown of fat that occurs when carbohydrates are not available are called ___

130

Approximately ___ grams a day of carbohydrates are needed to ensure complete sparing of body protein in an average- size person.

pancreas

the first organ to respond when the blood glucose level rises after a meal

glycemic index

The extent to which a food raises the blood glucose level and elicits an insulin response as compared with pure glucose can be measured and ranked on a scaled called the___

diabetes

Blurred vision, cravings for sweets, weakness, and excessive thirst and urination are symptoms suggestive of___

lipids

a family of organic compounds soluble in organic solvents but not in water

sterols

Cholesterol is the best known of the ___

fat

Protecting the body from temperature extremes, cushioning the internal organs from physical shock, and providing the major material from which cell membranes are made are fuctions of ___ in the body.

triglycerides

Consist of three fatty acids and glyercol

saturated fat

If the fat in a container is solid at room temperature, what type of fat is it?

high saturated and trans fat intake

The main dietary factor associated with elevated blood cholesterol is ___

high LDL

NOT a desirable blood lipid value

2

Consuming ___ fatty fish meals a week will result in the right balance between omega-3 and omega- 6 intakes.

mercury

To protect yourself from consuming too much ___, you would limit your consumption of swordfish, king mackerel, and shark.

prevent them from becoming rancid and retard the oxidation process

Cooking oils should be stored in tightly covered containers in order to___

essential fatty acids

These are polunsaturated fatty acids that must be supplied by the diet.

trigylcerides

The major storage form of fats in our body

reduce the intake of saturated and trans fat in your diet to lower LDL levels in the blood

What is the best dietary advice for someone who needs to lower her blood cholesterol levels?

nitrogen

This is found in protein but not in carbohydrate or fat

the side chain

The accounts for the differences among the various amino acids.

peptide

A ___ bond is formed between the amine group end of one amino acid and the acid group end of the next amino acid in a protein.

bases, alcohol, heat, salts

These denature proteins

a coat of mucus

The stomach lining is protected from the very strong acid of the stomach by___

protein turnover

eating food sources of amino acids every day to grow new cells and replace worn out ones

maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance

Proteins attract water and hold it within blood vessels, preventing it from freely flowing into the spaces between cells. This is an example of how protein is used for ___

amino acids

If ___ are oversupplied, the body stores them until they are needed and the body removes and excretes their amine groups.

0.8

The DRI for protein for healthy adults is ___ grams per kilogram of body weight.

a surgery patient

Negative nitrogen balance occurs in ___.

accumulate fat in the liver and edema

What are characteristics of kwashiorkor?

enlarged kidneys in animals, worsening of existing kidney problems, and high fat foods that contribute to obesity

These are associated with an excess of protein.

milk and meat

These food groups of the USDA Food Guide contribute an abundance of high- quality protein.

iron

The heavy use of soy products in place of meat can inhibit ___ absorption.

whole

Additional protein for recovery should be as ___ protein because the digestive system can handle this form better.

the body has no place to store extra amino acids and amino acid residues are stored as fat

An athlete consumes large amounts of meat in an effort to build extra muscle tissue. This practice does not work because___

digestion and absorption

Cells in the small intestine preferentially absorb different types of amino acids, which causes competition by amino acids at the absorption sites. This is comparing___ and ___.

kwashiorkor

swollen belly, fluid buildup, brittle hair, irritability are symptoms of ___

calcium, vitamin B12, and zinc

Poorly- planned vegetarian diets usually lack___

vitamin

an organic compound, indispensible to body fuction, needed in minute amounts

A,D,E,K

fat soluble vitamins

maintenance of body lining and reproduction

Vitamin A plays an important role in___ and ___.

bright yellow skin

What is one symptom of a beta- carotene toxicity?

osteomalacia

The vitamin D deficiency disease in adults is known as ___

antioxidant

Vitamin E serves as an ___

intestinal bacteria

A non- food source from which vitamin K can be obtained is ___

citrus fruits, strawberries, broccoli

Good sources of vitamin C

coenzymes

The B vitamins act as part of ___

beriberi

The thiamin deficiency disease

pellagra

Niacin deficiency disease

folate

The B vitamin especially important for women of childbearing age to prevent neural tube defects

vitamin B12

An ununiformed strict vegetarian is at special risk for ___ deficiency.

vitamins

Select a wide variety of foods to get a wide variety of ____

USP symbol

This, on the label of vitamin supplements, means that it contains the ingredients as listed on the label and that it will dissolve in the digestive tract.

fat

Any disease that produces ___ malabsorption can bring about deficiences of vitamins A,D, E, K.

water

Which of the following makes up about 60 percent of the body's weight?

water

___ dissolves amino acids, glucose, and minerals, it is a universal solvent, and it acts as a lubricant around joints.

thirst

the first sign of dehydration

thirst and satiety

Water intake is governed by ___ and ___

brain and kidneys

Water excretion is regulated by the ___ and ___

calcium and magnesium

Hard water has high concentrations of ___ and ___

calcium

the most abundant mineral in the body

animal protein

the best source of phosphorus

bones

Over half if the body's magnesium is stored in the ___

sodium

the chief ion used to maintain the volume of fluid outside cells

potassium

the principal positively charged ion inside body cells

salt

the principal food source of chloride

iodine

What must be available for thyroxine to be synthesized?

tea and phytates

impair iron absorption

shellfish

this food provides the highest amount of zinc

fluoride

What mineral hardens and stabilizes the crystals of teeth and makes the enamel resistant to decay?

hemoglobin and collagen

Copper is an essential nutrient because of its role in helping to form ___ and ___

formation of dense bones during youth

Bone strength in later life depends on ___

underweight

Dying first during a famine or siege, disadvantage in the hospital after surgery, and a person with cancer can die of starvation rather than the cancer. These are all risks from being ___

cancer and gallbladder disease

Excess body fatness is associated with an increased risk of ___ and ___.

visceral fatness

Waist circumference reflects the degree of ___ in proportion to body fatness.

overweight

A body mass index of 25-29.9 in an adult indicates ___.

central abdominal area

Excess fat around the ___ represents a greater risk to health than excess fat elsewhere on the body.

stress, fever, youth

factors associated with a higher basal metabolic rate

leptin

the hormone produced by adipose tissue in response to body fat production that helps control obesity

appetite

the psychological desire to eat

fiber and protein

Foods high in ___ and ___ sustain satiety longer than other foods.

the built environment

one "outside of the body" fact that contributes to obesity

increase in lean muscle tissue, which burns more energy

one of the major benefits of physical activity for weight management

gain

Participating in physical activity and eating more frequently will help a person ___ weight.

dehydration, infection, nausea

complications immediately following obesity surgery

portion sizes

Remember to choose smaller plates, glasses, and utensils and eat just until satisfied and then stop, are valid recommendations for managing ____.

purging

Bulimia nervosa is characterized by ___

aerobic physical activity

activity in which the body's large muscles move in a rhythmic manner for a sustained period of time; also called endurance fitness and improved cardiorespiratory fitness

brisk walking, running, swimming, bicycling

examples of aerobic physical activity

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