Department of Health and Human Services
Nutrition related health objectives for the nation have been published by the...
Effects of physical activity on the body
Reduced risk of cardiovascualr diseases, faster wound healing, and increased body tissue.
Foods that have been subjected to any process such as addition of additives, milling, or cooking are called ___ foods.
the convenience of meals that require little or no preparation
factor that influences food choices by individuals
collect information and learn about your current behaviors
best action to take in the precontemplation stage of change
we have been successful in reducing the number of deaths from heart disease and stroke
When evaluating the effectiveness of the nutrition and physical activity objectives in Healthy People 2010, public health officials have found that___
determine what the nutrients and dietary intakes of the population in our country are
The main purpose of the national research projects, NHANES and CSFII, is to___
Scientists have developed a new type of margarine containing plant ingredients they think will lower blood cholesterol levels in people who use the margarine. They want to test this by having some people use the new margarine for a while and then compare their cholesterol leverls with those of a group of people who use regular margarine. This is an example of what type of research desgin?
wait to apply the findings until they have been repeated and confirmed by scientists
You see a new finding about nutrition reported in your local newspaper. Based on this information you would___
insufficient data exists to establish a value
If a nutrient does not have a Tolerable Upper Intake Level, this means that___
The Daily Values reflect the needs of an average person consuming between ____ calories a day.
fruits and veggies, whole grains, and milk products
A major guideline for healthy people is to limit calorie intakes and obtain more and varied selections of___
Discrentionary calorie allowance
___ may be spent on nutrient- dense foods, may be affected by physical activity level, and may be spent on added sugars.
This educational tool has been designed to help diet-planning individuals to create a diet more closely following the USDA Food Guide
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
If you are using nutrient supplements, you should become familiar with this nutrient intake recommendations.
the recommended amounts will vary, depending on age, physical activity, and gender
When determining the amounts of food to eat from each group in the USDA Food Guide each day, you need to remember that___
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are intended for healthy adults and children ages ___ and older.
This type of cells do NOT reproduce and if damaged by injury or disease are lost forever
When the pancreas detects a high concentration of the blood's sugar, glucose, it releases___
Muscles tense up, liver pours forth glucose from its stores, and fat cells release fat. These are all apart of ___
The digestive tract needs ___, which provides bulk against which the muscles of the colon can work.
villi and microvilli
In the intestinal tract, these trap the nutrient particles and absorb them into the cells.
This system reacts by releasing stored glucose from the liver suring the fight-or-flight response.
What digestive issue would you consume foods with adequate fiber and drink enough water?
You should drink liquids an hour before and after meals and eat smaller meals to help with this condition.
Nutrients are delivered from the intestines through the circulatory system to the cells by transport through the blood to the ___ for chemical altering to make them better suited for use by the tissues.
preference for sweet tastes
Why would most people select cookies when given the choice between cookies, potato chips, and pickles?
control total calories
The best way to lose fat, maintain lean body tissues, and maintain the health of the body is to ___
Prevents constipation and hemorrhoids, reduces the risks of heart and artery disease, and prevents appendicitis and diverticulosis. All are effects of ___
According to the American Dietetic Association, a desirable intake of fiber is ___ grams daily.
Products of the incomplete breakdown of fat that occurs when carbohydrates are not available are called ___
Approximately ___ grams a day of carbohydrates are needed to ensure complete sparing of body protein in an average- size person.
The extent to which a food raises the blood glucose level and elicits an insulin response as compared with pure glucose can be measured and ranked on a scaled called the___
Blurred vision, cravings for sweets, weakness, and excessive thirst and urination are symptoms suggestive of___
Protecting the body from temperature extremes, cushioning the internal organs from physical shock, and providing the major material from which cell membranes are made are fuctions of ___ in the body.
high saturated and trans fat intake
The main dietary factor associated with elevated blood cholesterol is ___
Consuming ___ fatty fish meals a week will result in the right balance between omega-3 and omega- 6 intakes.
To protect yourself from consuming too much ___, you would limit your consumption of swordfish, king mackerel, and shark.
prevent them from becoming rancid and retard the oxidation process
Cooking oils should be stored in tightly covered containers in order to___
reduce the intake of saturated and trans fat in your diet to lower LDL levels in the blood
What is the best dietary advice for someone who needs to lower her blood cholesterol levels?
A ___ bond is formed between the amine group end of one amino acid and the acid group end of the next amino acid in a protein.
eating food sources of amino acids every day to grow new cells and replace worn out ones
maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance
Proteins attract water and hold it within blood vessels, preventing it from freely flowing into the spaces between cells. This is an example of how protein is used for ___
If ___ are oversupplied, the body stores them until they are needed and the body removes and excretes their amine groups.
enlarged kidneys in animals, worsening of existing kidney problems, and high fat foods that contribute to obesity
These are associated with an excess of protein.
milk and meat
These food groups of the USDA Food Guide contribute an abundance of high- quality protein.
Additional protein for recovery should be as ___ protein because the digestive system can handle this form better.
the body has no place to store extra amino acids and amino acid residues are stored as fat
An athlete consumes large amounts of meat in an effort to build extra muscle tissue. This practice does not work because___
digestion and absorption
Cells in the small intestine preferentially absorb different types of amino acids, which causes competition by amino acids at the absorption sites. This is comparing___ and ___.
The B vitamin especially important for women of childbearing age to prevent neural tube defects
This, on the label of vitamin supplements, means that it contains the ingredients as listed on the label and that it will dissolve in the digestive tract.
___ dissolves amino acids, glucose, and minerals, it is a universal solvent, and it acts as a lubricant around joints.
What mineral hardens and stabilizes the crystals of teeth and makes the enamel resistant to decay?
hemoglobin and collagen
Copper is an essential nutrient because of its role in helping to form ___ and ___
Dying first during a famine or siege, disadvantage in the hospital after surgery, and a person with cancer can die of starvation rather than the cancer. These are all risks from being ___
cancer and gallbladder disease
Excess body fatness is associated with an increased risk of ___ and ___.
central abdominal area
Excess fat around the ___ represents a greater risk to health than excess fat elsewhere on the body.
the hormone produced by adipose tissue in response to body fat production that helps control obesity
increase in lean muscle tissue, which burns more energy
one of the major benefits of physical activity for weight management
Remember to choose smaller plates, glasses, and utensils and eat just until satisfied and then stop, are valid recommendations for managing ____.
aerobic physical activity
activity in which the body's large muscles move in a rhythmic manner for a sustained period of time; also called endurance fitness and improved cardiorespiratory fitness
At this level of intensity, breathing and/or heart rate has little to no increase, <5 perceived exertion, able to sing, <3.5 kcal/min energy expenditure, and <3 mph walking pace.
At this level of intensity, breathing and/or heart rate has some increase, 5 or 6 perceived exertion, able to have a conversation, 3.5- 7 kcal/min energy expenditure, and 3- 4.5 (100 steps per min) mph walking pace.
At this level of intensity, breathing and/or heart rate has large increase, 7 or 8 perceived exertion, conversation is difficult, >7 kcal/min energy expenditure, and >4.5 mph walking pace.
According to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, sedentary activity to happen ___.
2 or more days per week
According to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, strength activities should happen ___
5 or more days per week
According to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, moderate or vigorous aerobic activities should happen ___
According to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, flexibility activities should happen ___
Muscle cells and tissues respond to an overload of physical activity by gaining strength and size, a response called ___
enhances the capacity of the heart, lungs, and blood to deliver oxygen to, and removes waste from, the body's cells
elevate heart rate, sustained for longer than 20 minutes, use most of the large- muscle groups of the body
characteristics of cardiorespiratory training
ways to delay glucose depletion
eating a high carb diet on a daily basis, take in some glucose during the activity, consuming carb- rich foods within a couple hours after exercise
first 10 mintues
In the ___ of an activity, the active muscles rely almost entirely on their own stores of glycogen for glucose.
glucose helps maintain hydration and contribute to blood glucose; sodium and other electrolytes are replenished
benefits of sports drinks over water
risk factors for CVD
increasing age, male gender, genetic inheritance, high blood LDL, low blood HDL, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, cigarette smoking, saturated fat diet
a combination of characteristic factors- high fasting blood glucose or insulin resistance, central obesity, hypertension, low blood HDL cholesterol, and elevated blood triglycerides- that greatly increase a person's risk of developing CVD.
dieatary strategies to reduce risk of CVD
limit saturated and trans fats, choose soluble fibers, choose potassium and sodium, minimize added sugars, choose omega-3, choose added plant sterols, choose soy, limit alcohol
___ plays a central role in all stages of atherosclerosis, and a blood test for compounds released during inflammation can help idenitfy people at high or very high risk of CVD before a life- threatening event occurs.
a poisonous substance arising from microbial toxins, poisonous chemicals, or other harmful substances
MAP (modified atmosphere packaging
a preservation technique in which perishable food is packages in a gas-impermeable container from which air has been removed or to which another gas mixture has been added
added to meats and meat products help to preserve their color and inhibit rancidity and thwart bacterial growth
a noncaloris artificial fat made from sucrose and fatty acids; formerly called sucrose polyester; binds to fat- soluble vitamins
Keeping the raw foods and their juices away from ready- to- eat foods prevents ___
MSG system complex
the acute, temporary, and self- limiting reactions, including burning sensations or flushing of the skin with pain and headache, experienced by sensitive people upon ingesting a large dose of MSG
central nervous system, a beating heart, a fully formed digestive system, well defined fingers and toes, and the beginning of facial features
the fetus at 8 weeks
milk, cheese, yogurt, and other calcium rich foods
For pregnant women to meet their calcium needs, they should consume more___
FASD (fetal alcohol spectrum disorders)
a spectrum of physical, behavioral, and cognitive disabilities caused by prenatal alcohol exposure
FAS (fetal alcohol syndrom)
the cluster of symptoms including brain damage, growth retardation, mental retardation, and facial abnormalities seen in an infant or child whose mother consumed alcohol during her pregnancy
What are these risk factors for? Age 25+, BMI >/= 25, complications in previous pregnancies, prediabetes, family history of diabetes, african american, asian american, hispanic american, native american, pacific islander
a milklike secretion from the breasts during the first day or so after delivery before milk appears; rich in protective factors
To prevent ___, encourage the child to sit when eating, avoid/ cut up round foods (grapes, nuts, hard candies, hot dogs), and be aware of meat chunks, popcorn, chips, and peanut butter eaten by the spoonful.
peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, wheat soybeans, fish, shellfish
foods most likely to cause anaphylactic shock
offering new foods at the beginning of the meal when the child in hungry and setting a parental example
best ways to introduce new foods into a toddler's diet