5-30 thin cane or metal tongues attached to a board/box resonator (thumb piano)
21-string bridge harp, chordophone, hybrid harp/lute, jali's principle instrument
Types of instruments typically found in African cultures
-Membranophones: many drums
-Idiophones: xylophone, marimba, mbira, gourd resonators
-Aerophones: voice, flute, trumpet-like instruments
-Chordophones: lyres, harps, kora
How might interlocking appear?
-Interlock call and response
What instruments would you find in a gamelan ensemble?
Mainly bronze instruments (metallophones, metal-keyed xylophones), drums, winds, strings, but mainly metallophones and gongs
What is the Pelog tuning system?
Pelog is a heptatonic scale with some adjacent intervals significantly larger than others
What is the Slendro tuning system?
Slendro is a pentatonic scale with adjacent intervals close to the same size
Name the general formal principles found in gamelan music.
-composition guided by core melody
-colotomic structure (regular punctuation by gons articulates metrical cycle)
-paired families of tuning systems (pelog, slendro)
-stress at the end of metrical cycles
Arabic term for mode, 24 steps in an octave, 7 notes per scale. Remember: scales are more about "what you do with it."
nonpulsatile improvisations that represent the maqam, by solo instrument, intro to songs
Persian (Iranian) mode on which improvisation is based. There are 12.
long-necked, teardrop-shaped, fretted, 3-4 strings, can strum drone in between melody notes
lute, plucked, long-necked, hourglass shaped
lute (connection to Europe), most important art music instrument of the Islamic region, fretless, pear-shaped, elaborate, big resonator
trapezoidal hammered dulcimer (zither) struck with small wooden mallets
end blown notch flute, played at oblique angle from side of mouth, only aerophone commonly found in classical ensembles
spike fiddle, bowed chordophone, held vertically with spike resting on ground or ankle, folk and classical instrument
Arabic goblet-shaped drum played with fingers
Persian (Iranian) version of darabukkah
What is the Arabic and Persian conceptions of mode?
Mode is a scale, and it's about what you do with it. Maqam = Arabic, Dastgah = Persian
What is the Arabic and Persian conceptions of rhythm?
"Rhythms based on a beat pattern," complex meters based on rhythm of poetry, elaborations of a specific beat pattern or basic rhythm inside the meter
What is the Arabic and Persian conceptions of tuning?
Inncludes quarter tones, 24 notes per octave
passionate, emotional state in music, goal in Arabic music
Describe how Arabic music is organized:
Suites are based on a maqam, usually involves a taqsim, traditionally an ensemble of five musicians called "takht."
Describe how Persian music is organized:
Mostly improvisation on dastgah, called gusheh, also some improv with rhythm called "chahar mezrab."
Body of largely nonmetric music, 10 hours long, includes the 12 dastgahs and their corresponding gushehs, memorized and becomes the basis composition for improv
in the North
in the South
Indian word for "solfege"
sa, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni
Carnatic scale system
beating/striking together, abstract measure of musical time, no accented beats
7 of them, basis of carnatic tala
primary talla, most widely used
complete scale, 7 degrees
(O) type of anga, 2 beats, clap & wave
(U) type of anga, 1 beat, clap
(I subscript) type of anga, clap and finger counts, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9
number of finger taps in laghu
improv with same rhythm and text of original melody, but different pitches
improve with solfege syllables
composed single piece, can be sung or instrumental
1st section of kriti
2nd section of kriti
3rd and last section of kriti
improvisation preceeding performance of a composition, free exploration of raga without rhythm
repeats structural terms of alapna with addition of pulsed rhythm
Common performance piece. Long and complex.
Hindustani form of Carnatic "alapana" except tempo increases in plateaus
instrumental in Hindustani
vocal in Hindustani
most important Hindustani vocal music
oldest type of Hindustani vocal music
almost purely improvised Hindustani instrumental music
light classical music
long-necked lute, usually drone
Carnatic lutes, fixed frets
Hindustani, sympathetic strings, movable frets, lute
Hindustani, no frets, lute
Hindustanic bowed instrument (Carnatic bowed instrument = violin)
Hindustani drum (more resonant than mrdangam, pitched, scooping pitch)
Describe the order of a Carnatic recital:
1. etude-like tana varnam (pre-composed)
2. simple kritis
3. complex kritis (ragnam-tanam-pallavi)
4. short dance pieces
Describe a Hindustani recital
alap---jor or nam-ton---Jhala (tempo cut in half)