← APUSH Project - Post Civil War Reform Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Plessy v. Ferguson - 1896 - Upheld the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal." Brown v. Board - 1954 - declared state laws establishing separate schools for black and white students unconstitutional - overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision Martin Luther King Jr. - prominent leader in the Civil Rights movement - believed in using nonviolent methods to end racial segregation/discrimination - led the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 - delivered his famous "I Have A Dream" speech during the March on Washington in 1963 Malcom X - worked for a Nation of Islam that sought to create a separate society for its members - rejected integration with white America, but joined the civil rights struggle later in his life - OPPOSED nonviolence as a means of achieving racial integration (he saw being nonviolent as being defenseless) Stockely Carmichael - brought the "Black Power" campaign into the spotlight and gave speeches calling on black people to "define their own goals" and "lead their own organizations." - saw nonviolence as a tactic as opposed to a principle - became a member of the Black Panther Party in 1967 NAACP - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People - founded in 1909 - It's mission is to "to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination". -Members include people like Ida B. Wells and W.E.B Du Bois CORE - Congress of Racial Equality - founded in 1942 - sought to apply the principles of nonviolence as a tactic against segregation 18th Amendment - 1920 - Implemented by the Volstead Act - Prohibited the selling and consumption of alcohol -Disregarded frequently because it wasn't enforced very well 21st Amendment - 1933 - repealed the 18th Amendment (which prohibited the selling and consumption of alcohol) Woman's Christian Temperance Union - founded in 1874 - organized by women who were concerned about the destructive power of alcohol and the problems it was causing their families and society 19th Amendment - 1920 - gave women the right to vote Elizabeth Cady Stanton - leading figure of the early women's movement - presented her "Declaration of Sentiments" at the first women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls - AFTER the Civil War she declined to support the passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments Susan B. Anthony - social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, temperance, and was an abolitionist - helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association - AFTER the Civil War she declined to support the passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments Ida B. Wells - early leader in the Civil Rights movement - brought attention to the lynching issue - also active in the women's rights and women's suffrage movements Lucretia Mott - Quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she was a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. Betty Friedan - started the "second wave of feminism" with the writing of her book, The Feminine Mystique - her book brought attention to "the problem that has no name" - the unhappiness women felt with their typical role as wife/mother/homemaker Preservationist - preservationists were more philosophical and believed in saving the environment partially for its own sake, and so that people could enjoy nature into the future. - John Muir Conservationist - conservationists wanted to save the environment for human purposes. - Gifford Pinchot, Theodore Roosevelt Sierra Club - founded in 1892 by John Muir - it's mission is to "explore, enjoy and protect the wild places of the earth..." Gifford Pinchot - head of the U.S. Forest Service under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them Rachel Carson - one of the first people to realize the global dangers of pesticide abuse - wrote Silent Spring John Muir - United States naturalist (born in England) who advocated the creation of national parks (1838-1914) -help found the Sierra Club in 1892 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory - A fire at the factory in NYC shocked Americans and focused attention on the need to protect workers. - Workers in the factory had little chance to escape the fire because managers locked most of the exists. - Led progressives to intensify their calls for reform. Upton Sinclair - intended to reveal the plight of the worker in his book, The Jungle, but instead revealed gruesome details about the meat-packing industry in Chicago - "I aimed at the public's heart and, by accident, I hit it in the stomach." - The Jungle influenced the passing of the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act. Little Rock 9 - incident in which troops (sent by president Eisenhower) helped integrate a high school by allowing nine black students to enter school peacefully and not be prevented by angry mobs. - troops were called in because at first they were told they could not attend the school The Elementary and Secondary Education Act - 1965 - passed by LBJ to improve the public education system - provided major funding for American public schools Higher Education Act - 1965 - the law intended "to strengthen the educational resources of our colleges and universities and to provide financial assistance for students in postsecondary and higher education." - increased federal money given to universities, created scholarships, gave low-interest loans for students, and established a National Teachers Corps National Defense Education Act - 1958 - passed in response to Sputnik - provided funding to math, science, and language programs Samuel Gompers - United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924) AFL - American Federation of Labor - founded in 1886 - only accepted skilled workers - advocated for better working conditions, wages, and hours Knights of Labor - 1869 - accepted skilled and unskilled workers - rejected socialism - primary goal was the eight-hour work day, but they also called for legislation to end child and convict labor "Wet" or "Dry" - "Wet" places sell alcohol while "Dry" places do not - typically, "wet" places were against prohibition and "dry" places were for it Homebrew/Bathtub Gin - with the passing of the 18th Amendment came people who opposed it so much that they began making alcohol in their own homes Eugene V. Debs - wanted America to stay neutral in WWI - sent to jail for giving an Anti-War speech that violated the Sedition and Espionage Acts America First Committee - A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker. Anti-Imperialist League - a movement opposed to any form of colonialism or imperialism. - It is also against wars of conquest and expansion of countries. - Carnegie, Cleveland, and Mark Twain were part of this group. Black Power - a call to African Americans to unite, to recognize thier heritage, build a sense of community, define own goals, etc - African Americans should fight back if attacked Jim Crow Laws - Limited rights of blacks. - Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights - "separate but equal" March on Washington - held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. - Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. -250,000 people attended the rally Civil Rights Act - LBJ passed this in 1964. - Prohibited discrimination of African Americans in employement, voting, or public accomidations. -Also said there could be no discrimination against race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.