portion of oxygen transport system that can be diffused out of blood and into cells
more o2 binds with Hb
completely converted to oxyhemoglobin
express avg saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen
2 locations where oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve
2 other factors affecting affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen
as acidity increases, affinity of hb an o2 decreases
increasing acidity enhances what?
Hb unloads oxygen easier
result of rising of Pco2
cause of low blood pH
more oxygen released from hb
as temperature increases
most oxygen remains bound during what?
helps unload oxygen by binding with hb
function of BPG
70% of all CO2 is trasported by what?
when CO2 reacts with water, what forms slowly?
enzyme that speeds up reaction
dissolved in plasma
7% of CO2 transported by what?
the amout of Co2 that dissolves in plasma is determined by what?
transports 23% of Co2
Co2 attaches to amino groups of Hb
what prevents a competition of Co2 and o2?
medullary rhythmitic of medulla oblongata/pneumotaxic area of pons
2 components of respiratory center
the medullary center includes 2 groups that extend the lengths of what?
ventral respiratory group
responsible for the rhythm of breathing
dorsal respiratory group
integrated input from peripheral stretch and chemoreceptors and communicates this information to ventral respiratory center
the pneumotaxic area of the pons sends impulses to ventral respiratory to modify breathing during what 3 events?
chemical factors/higher brain control
2 factors affecting breathing
associated with the respiratory center and are sensitive to changes in the blood concentration of co2 and h+ atoms
within carotid artery, aorttic arch, sense changes in blood-oxygen concentration
higher brain controls
acting through the hypothalamus, and limbic system, strong emotions and pain sending those to the respiratory center to modify rate and depth
characterized by spasms by the smooth muscle in bronichole tubes that result in partial or complete closure of air passageways
5 triggering factors of asthma
type of respiratory disorder characterized by chronic and recurrent obstruction of air flow, which increases airway resistance
irreversible decrease in ability to force air out of lungs
key physiological aspect of COPD
distinguished by permanent enlargement of the alveoli, accompanied by destruction of the alveolar walls, causing the lungs to lose their elasticity
inflammation of the plurae and lungs produced by the organism myobacteriumtuberculosis *communicable and destorys lung tissue
acute infection of alveoli, most common cause is pneumococcal bacteria
an inherited disease of secretory epithelia that affects the respiratory passagemways, pancreas, salvilary glands, and sweat glands