What as the Monroe Doctrine about?
1) North and South America should no longer be thought of as areas for European colonization
2) The U.S. would not interfere with European Affairs , and European countries should not interfere with the affairs of any nation in the Western Hemisphere
What were the goals of the Monroe Doctrine?
1) Protect the independence of new Latin American nations
2) To keep Russia from moving south into the U.S. from Alaska
What is the Rush-Bagot Agreement?
Limited naval power on the Great Lakes for both the United States and British Canada
What was the Adams-Onis Treaty about?
In 1819, It settled all border disputes between Spain and the United States
What is Nationalism?
Feelings of pride & loyalty to a nation
What is the American System?
A series of measures intended to make the U.S. economically self-sufficient
What is the Lumberland Road?
The first road built by the federal government
What is the Erie Canal?
It stretches from the Hudson River to Lake Erie
What are the benefits of the Erie Canal?
1) It reduced travel time for shipping
2) It lowered the cost of shipping goods
a. 1824 - $100 per ton by road
b. 1825 - $10 per ton by canal
3) New York City became a center of commerce (business)
4) The economy of towns along the canal grew
What did the success of the canal bring?
The success of the Erie Canal promtped other states to build canals
Who was one of the first writes to become famous?
What did Washington Irving warn people about?
Through a form of writing called satrie, he warned people to learn from the past, and to be cautious about the future
What did Irving's works talk about?
Irving's works told about history
In some of Irving's popular works, he combined?
Some of Irving's popular works, combined European influences with American setting and characters
What did James Fenimore Cooper popularize?
James Fenimore Cooper popularized Historical Fiction
What were some books that James Fenimore Cooper made?
1) The Spy, appealed to American reader's patriotism
2) The Pioneers, the first novel to feature the heroic character Natty Bumppo
What did Catharine Maria Sedwick write about?
Catharine Maria Sedwick wrote about interesting heroines
American Writes inspired what?
American Writers inspired Art
Early American Painters usually painted what?
Early Americans painters usually painted portriats
What did the artist of the Hudson River create?
They created paintings that reflected national pride and an appreciation on the American landscape
What did the painters of the Hudson River prove?
They proved that American landscapes are worthy of art
Who is Thomas Cole?
Founder of Hudson River School (He encouraged other American Artist to show the beauty of Nature)
Who is George Caleb Bingham?
His paintings showed the rugged, lonely lives of traders in the West (Daily Living)
What were the meetings of Rivivalism like?
1) Held for the reawakening religious faith
2) Lasted for days
3) People in these meetings sang spirituals
What are spirituals?
1) Folk Hymn found in both white and African American folk-music traditions
2) Developed from the bible
3) The group of singers sang freely as inspiration led them
What is Folk Music like?
Reflected the unique views of the growing nation in a different way
What are the hunters of Kentucky?
1) Celebrated the Battle of New Orleans
2) Became an anthem for the spirit of nationalism in the U.S.
3) Used successfully in Andrew Jackson's campaign for the presidency in 1828
After the Revolution, Jefferson told the Americans to model their architecture like what?
After the Revolution, Jefferson told the Americans to model their architecture, like the styles used in Ancient Greece and Rome
Why did Jefferson pick that style?
It contained some of the same democratic and republican ideals as the new American Nation did
How were buildings designed (made)?
Made of marble or stone and featured large, stately columns
Political Leaders believed what about education?
Political Leaders believed that people would only succeed in a county of educated and enlightened people
How did education develop?
1) Eventually, the idea of a state - funded public school gathered support (Schools -> $ form states)
2) In 1837, Massachusetts law makers created a board in education, and other stated did the same (The number of public schools slowly grew)
3) Education -> Mandatory
Where was Andrew Jackson born?
In a log cabin in the backwoods of the Carolinas in 1767
At what age did Jackson join the patriots?
Age of 13, during the American Revolution
Where did Jackson become a wealthy attorney?
At the age of 20, Jackson moved to Nashville, Tennessee, where he eventually becomes a wealthy attorney
Jackson became the first person from Tennessee to serve where?
In the House of Representatives and he also served as Senator before becoming president
When did Jackson become President?
Who sent Jackson to protect the border of Florida against the Seminole and Creek Indians?
President James Monroe
After defeating the Creeks battle, Jackson became refered to what?
"Sharp Knife", but after he forced the Creeks to give up lands that had been guaranteed to them in earlier treaties with the U.S.
How else did Jackson gain fame?
From his military achievements during the War of 1812 leading American forces to victory over the British in the Battle of New Orleans
Where was "Old Hickory" used?
"Old Hickory" after solders said "Tough as Hickory"
Who received the most popular votes?
Who is the 6th president of the United States?
John Quincy Adams
Who won the Elections of 1824?
John Quincy Adams
Who won the Elections of 1828?
Jackson easily defeated Adams, to become the first President from a Western State?
Who was Jackson Extremely popular with?
With the "common man", which he considered to be farmers, factory workers and western frontiersmen
What was the Jacksonian Democracy?
Jackson's belief in shifting the political power for the wealthy and educated elite to the "common man"
How did Jackson's critics view his popularity?
As a danger sign that his presidency was coming to resemble that of a king
As a result, Jackson earned another nickname which was?
"King Andrew", fearing Jackson's intentions of strengthening the powers of the presidency
How many workers did Jackson fired?
200 government workers to replace them with his own Democratic supporters
What did Jackson say?
"To the victor belongs the spoils"
What is the Spoils System?
Practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs, even if they didn't qualify for the job
Instead of relying on his cabinet for advice, Jackson relied on what?
On a small group of unofficial advisors known as the "Kitchen Cabinet" since Jackson frequently met with them in the White House Kitchen
What was the Bank War?
- Jackson believed that the Bank of the U.S. had too much power and served the needs of the rich over those of average Americans
Ex) The Bank of the U.S. had the abilities to limit the amount of money state banks were allowed to lend to small business owners such as farmers and merchants
Jackson felt particular anger towards the bank's president, which was?
Who and who advised a plan to destroy Jackson in the Election of 1832?
1) Henry Clay
2) Daniel Webster
Clay and Webster convinced Nicholas Biddle to submit his application to renew what?
The Charter for the Bank of the U.S. earlier than required
Clay, Webster, and Biddle predicted that Jackson was going to do what with the Charter?
To veto it, angering so many Americans that he would eventually lose his bid for reelection in 1832
Who ended up defeating who in the Election of 1832?
- Jackson defeated Clay
- Jackson also succeeded in destroying the Bank of the U.S. by having it shut down in 1836
What were Jackson's Beliefs?
a. Jackson had a controversial past with the Indians
b. He was known for fighting the Indians
c. He believed Indian land should go to the settlers and farmers
When did Congress pass the Indian Removal Act?
What is the Purpose of the Indian Removal Act?
It removed all Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River to land in the West
Who persuaded Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act?
What is the Bureau of Indian Affairs?
- Congress created this new agency to oversee the new policy
- They helped to regulate to Indians move to the new Indian Territory
- This new territory is now present day Oklahoma
Which tribe was the first to be removed?
During their move, how many Choctaw died?
1/4 of the Choctaw died from cold, disease, and starvation
In what year did the Creeks resist?
How many Native Americans were captured and removed?
14,500 Native Americans were captured and removed. Many were in chain, as they moved to the new land
What was the next tribe to be removed?
The Chickasaw negotiated a treaty which said what?
-To get better supplies for the trip, but still many lives were lost
Which tribes fought back?
Which two leaders fought until they ran out of food and supplies in 1850?
Chief Black Hawk of the Fox and Sauk tribes
Which Seminole leader started the second Seminole War?
Describe the Second Seminole Battle?
It was bloody and in the end, the U.S. troops gave up and some Seminole were able to stay on their land
How was the Cherokee Resistance?
-Instead of being removed, the tribe adopter the culture of the white people
Who created the written language to help them fit in bettter?
How was the Worcester vs. Georgia Supreme Court Case?
1) The court ruled in favor of the Cherokee
2) Jackson did not uphold the law
3) The Cherokee were removed
Describe the Trail of Tears?
- Started in the spring of 1838
- Their journey was over 800 miles
- The weather was very cold and harsh to the Cherokee
- About 1/4 of the 18,000 Cherokee died during their march