Publicity: Unpaid comms in mass media.
-Basic Rule: do something good, then talk about it.
-Credibility- create a favorable image, "crisis mgmt" (maintain composure in negative situation)
-Comms that seeks to build good relationships with stakeholder (anyone in the public)
-more credible than paid advertisement
-Buzz mark is a form of publicity
1.Press Release - most common. co writes report and sends to media to get free exposure.
2. Sponsorship: co provides $ to help event in return for PR. consumer enjoys the event = enjoys the sponsor. while customers in leisure time.can create brand loyalty
3. Internal PR: co newsletters. (employees, suppliers, stockholders)
4.SpecialEvents/Community Involvement: community events put on by co. Ex. WU easter egg hunt
5.Advice and Counsel: best way to handle a situation, news can be good or bad.
Press Release Types
1. Timely Topics: news topics that may be relevant to consumers and co. Ex. new product feature/benefit
2. Research Project Findings:published by universities to highlight research
3. Helpful consumer info: about prod decisions. ex. egg recipes by egg producer
programs designed to build interest or encourage purch of prod during a SPECIFIC period of time.
-can be targeted to end consumers, channel partners, and/or employees
-can be simple/local. can be high-profile (Happy meal toys).
-Use other mediums to promote the sales promo
Sales Promo to Consumers:
-Coupons (very common, certificate for $ off, trial)
-Rebates (recover part of purchase afterwards)
-Bonus Packs (more product - same price)
-Samples (trial-size to encourage use)
-Contests/Sweepstakes (skill vs. chance)
-Premiums (giveaways to buy prod - prize in cereal box)
-Loyalty programs (more purchases = more stuff, "frequent flyer" programs)
-POP Displays (in-store displays, signage, TV)
Can encourage consumers to buy more of product
provide consumers with a reason to choose one brand over another
Sales Promo for B2B
-Merch Allowance ($ for in-store support)
-Push money (bonus from manu to channel member salespersons)
-Cooperative Promos (firms combine to promote prods. Ex. McDonalds and Disney)
-Trade Shows (meet people in supply chain, events to showcase prods) - can create orders and meet potential customers
-Promotional Prods - Giveaways (build awareness, Ex. Pens)
nonpersonal comms paid for by an identified sponsor using mass media to persuade, inform, and remind an audience.
-Biggest Spenders = 1)Auto Industry 2)Retail 3) Telecomms
message focuses on specific prod (most common)
-Educate about a new prod and what it does
-Emphasize brand's features
-Ensure people won't forget about prod
message focuses on activities or POV of an org, not prod or brand.
-Corporate Ad: focuses on org as a whole
-Often for political or PR purposes
-Public Service Ads: free for not-for-profits that serve society in some way. Also champion an issue like discouraging drunk driving.
consumer generated ads.
-consumers more likely to trust this adv
-Companies have been very successful with this tactic
-Generation C phenomenon
Retail & Local Ad
specific store or local service
-local ads - can be quite awful
-ads discuss store hrs, locations, sales, and featured prods
-puts prods in show.
3 Options: 1) Be in the movie 2) Interact with people 3) Talk about it in movie
series of ads placed in media over a period of time using IMC
-all ads need consistent message, with same look and feel
1) Limited Service: one or more services (specialized focus)
2) Full-service: everything from beginning to end of ad campaign.
Designing the Ad
Ad Appeal: central idea or theme of ad (approach used to influence customer - informational, emotional) Creatives try to develop a big idea
-Unique Selling Proposition (USP): an ad appeal that has clear reason why product is superior to competitors. Can be a slogan
1. Reasons why: USP - show why prod is superior
2. Comparative Ad: explicitly names one or more competitors. can have a negative connotation. ex. cola wars
3. Demonstration: important when consumers are unable to see benefits except when prod is in use. show prod in action
4. Testimonial: celebrity, expert, random joe.
5. Slice-of-Life: appealing to reality. people relating to ad
6. Lifestyle: shows person(s) attractive tgt mkt in an appealing setting (Ex. skateboarders drinking milk)
7. Fear: what if? drunk driving, unexpected pregnancy
9. Humor - attracts consumers attention
10. Slogans and Jingles (good recall of prod)
getting message to tgt audience in most effective way.
-when and where to say it.
-Aperture: best place and time to reach tgt mkt (best "window")
Pros: creative/flexible, prestigious, entertaining, network is cost effective for reaching best audience, cable is good for reaching targeted group. can demonstrate prod
Cons: quickly forgotten, requires repitition, increasingly fragmented audiences, high costs on absolute basis, people don't watch commercials, increasing clutter
Pros: Selective audience, heard out of home, personal and intimate, local personalities, low cost, can be modified to reflect changes in mkt, listener imagination.
Cons: don't pay full attention, no demos, ads repeated frequently b/c of small audiences
Pros: wide exposure and extensive mkt coverage, flexibility format options, useful for comparison shopping, local retailers can tie in with national ads, timeliness
Cons: don't spend alot of time reading, low readership in youth, short life span, very cluttered, no specific audiences
Pros: specific tgt audience, high credibility/interest level, long life span and pass along rate, excellent visual quality
Cons: very expensive, long deadlines, use several mags to reach tgt mkt
Pros: high reach, low cost, geographic choices, suplements other media
Cons: hard to comm complex message, controversial/disliked, no demos
Banners, buttons, pop-ups, emails, search engines and directory listings
-Adv: target customers, interactive, track preferences
Indirect Forms of Media
-Directories (yellow pages)
-advergaming (ad in video games)
-place-based media: ad in doctor's offices, airports, gas stations
-branded entertainment: integrate prods into entertainment venues
plan that specifies what media to use and when to use it.
-includes frequency of certain ads. Ex. Video Game ads
1)Continuous Schedule: steady stream of ad throughout year. for prods bought on regular basis
2)Pulsing Schedule: varies amount of ad based on when prod is likely to be demanded
3)Flighting: advertising in short, intense bursts. alternated with periods in which no ad is done.
Impressions & Reach
number of people who will be exposed to a message placed in one or more media vehicles
-Reach: % of tgt mkt that will be exposed to media vehicle
-Frequency: average # of times a person in tgt group will be exposed to message. Need high levels for complex prods or those with small tgt mkts
Ethical Issues in Ad
-deceptive and untruthful
-offensive and in bad taste
-creates and perpetuates stereotypes
-causes people to buy things they don't really need.
Developing an Ad Campaign (6 Steps)
1. Understand tgt audience
2. Establish Message and Budget Obj
3. Create the Ad
4. Pretest what the ads will say
5. Choose media type(s) and media schedule
6. Evaluate ad