All body defenses that protect the body against any kind of pathogen
Defense (antibodies)against specific microorganisms
First line of defense: Skin and mucous
physical barrier and nonspecific chemicals
Intact layer of skin, tears, saliva, mucus
Sebum, Perspiration, Lysozyme, Gastric juice
Unsaturatted fatty acids inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria (bacteria commonly found on skin can metabolize sebum and cause inflammatory response associated with acne.)
washes microorganisms off skin
Found in tears, saliva, nasal secretions, and perspiration
Prevents microbial growth in the stomach by high acidity
Second line of defense
Phagocytes, inflammation fever and antimicrobial substances
white blood cells (granulocytes, agranulocytes)
The most important phagocytes
Produce toxic substances against parasites
Mature into macrophages
Agranulocytes: Dendrite cells
Derived from monocytes, are phagocytes and initiate the adaptive immune system
T-cells and B-cells
Function in blood clotting
Characterized by redness, pain heat, swelling, and sometimes the loss of function
Release of histamine, Kinins, and prostaglandins cause vasodilation and increase permeability of blood vessels.
A chill indicates a rise in body temp.
Indicates the body temp is falling
activation begins the cascade in all three pathways (classical, alternative, and lectin)
a-IFN and B-IFN induce uninfected cells to produce antiviral proteins (AVPs) that prevent viral replication.
Host cell-specific but not virus-specific.
activates neutrophils and macrophages to kill bacteria.
Chemical substance that causes the body to produce specific antibody (Ab) then binds with Ab
(immunoglobulin): protein produced by B cells in response to a specific antigen.
Monomer, 80% of serum abs, fix complement, In blood lymph and intestine, cross placenta, enhanced phagocytosis, half life = 23 days
Pentamer, 5-10% of serum abs, Fix complement, in blood and lymph, agglutinates- 1st antibody produced during infection
Dimer, 10-15% of serum abs, In secretions, mucosal protection, half-life of 6 days
Monomer, 0.2% of serum abs, In blood and lymph, on B cells, initiate immune response
Monomer, 0.002% of serum abs, on mast cells, on basophils and in blood, allergic reaction; lysis of paracitic worms, half life of 2 days
Immunology memory: Primary response
First contact with an antigen characterized by the apperance of IgM the IgG. Because IgG in longer lasting then IgM, and forms second, its presence in serum may only indicate the patient has been exposed to the antigen sometime in the past.
Types of adaptive immunity
Acquired active immunity, Acquired Passive immunity, Artifically Acquired Active Immunity, Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity
Acquired Active immunity
Results from infection, immunity may be long-lasting
Acquired passive immunity
antibodies transferred from mother to fetus or to a newborn in colostrum
Artificially acquired active immunity
Results from vaccination and can be long-lasting
Artificially acquired passive immunity
humoral antibodies acquired by injection; can las a few weeks.
The study of reactions between antibodies and antigens.
Discovered penicillin in 1928
Chemotherapy, antimicrobial drug, antibiotic, selective toxicity
Polypeptide antibodies: terracyclin
Broad spectrum natural penicillin produced by fungus
Inhibits cell wall synthesis in bacteria
causes injury to plasma membranes and is recommended for gram-negative bacteria
produced by penicilluim are effective against gram-positive cocci and spirochetes
Nystatin and amphotericin B
Resistance can be minimized by the discriminating use of drugs in appropriate concentration and dosages.
They are more effective when taken together
Taken together, both drugs become less effective
Broad spectrum drug
Tetracycline, affect a more diverse range of microbes