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imperialism

extension of your nationalism over other people, people taking over other places

international political rivalry

countries grabbing countries so others cannot have them, all a rivalry

military

this became stronger because of new weapons, steam ships that ran on coal, coaling stations

raw materials

all coming back to London: sugar, coffee, chocolate, rubber, etc.

industrial imperialism

want to have an empire so they can have resources for homeland

plantations and mines

sugar, coffee, chocolate, rubber, jute, diamonds all came from these places

diamonds

was produced from coal

China, India

places where Britain's cheap labor came from

markets

places where British sold goods made by their "cheap labor countries"

cultural imperialism

belief that your way of doing things are so great, everybody should do it

civilizing ideal

conquer countries for their own good, control them for their own good, make them better for their own good

religion

Imperialist countries wanted to convert other countries to their ________.

Christian

with the exception of Japan, most imperialist countries were _________.

missionaries

imperialist countries sent out __________ to build churches and spread the word, taught the other countries English, converted their clothing styles

culture, consumerism

missionaries from the imperialist countries brought ________ and __________ to the other countries

Rudyard Kipling

wrote The White Man's Burden, said that imperialism is the white man's burden

The White Man's Burden

book written by Rudyard Kipling

Dominion

countries that have their own money and govern themselves, but still loyal to Britain

Canada

first of Britain's Dominions

1867

year Canada was declared a Dominion by Britain

west

the direction in which Canadian people went looking for land

Royal Canadian Mounted Police

protected Indians when settlers came to Canada

Australia

became second dominion for Britain

Aborigines

first nomadic people to go to Australia; used Stone-Age tools, hunter-gatherers, lived off land;

prisoners

the British went to Australia because they needed a place to put their ___________. they would serve their time and then be released into Australia to live.

gold

discovered in Australia, and then people started volunteering to come to Australia

sheep, cattle

settlers came to Australia and started _______ and ________ ranches, and sent minerals and wool back to England

Australia

granted Dominion by the British in 1901

1901

year Australia was granted a Dominion

New Zealand

moist, temperate country, mountains in the middle making one side rainy and one side dry (rain shadow)

Maoris

Polynesians that inhabited New Zealand; war-like people, aggressive and big

James Cook

Englishman who discovered New Zealand

New Zealand

granted Dominion in 1907

1907

year New Zealand granted Dominion

Maoris

gain respect from English when they invade

Ecological Imperialism

when the Europeans go out into the world, they don't just bring government and guns, but also diseases, animals, and weeds

disease

Europeans bring smallpox, measles, chickenpox, mumps to new countries they conquer

dogs, cats, cattle, sheep

animals the Europeans bring to new countries they conquer

weeds

Europeans brought new grass for cattle and sheep to graze on

Neo-Europe

Europeans transformed New Zealand ecologically with grass, animals, other plants, diseases

British East India Company

originally English East India Company, took over government in India, sent Indian goods back to Britain and traded them

Battle of Plassey

war between Hindus and Muslims, Robert Clive

Robert Clive

minor official of British East India Company, blew off college money and went to India, sets Hindus and Muslims against each other in Battle of Plassey

trading

British had been ________ with Indians for a long time, but could not conquer them

British

people who colonize Indian sub-continent

Sepoy

new army soldier, Indian

Sepoy Mutiny

sepoys rebel against English masters, violent war

British Raj

after Sepoy Mutiny, British Empire will rule India, this is called __________

Viceroy

English official in charge of Raj in India

disease, strong borders

reasons why British did not invade Africa sooner

disease

English could not handle Africa's _______ (malaria, yellow fever)

Sahara

mountain where one side is Hindu and the other is Muslim

north

direction where Brits started their invasion on Africa

Ottoman

empire that ruled some of Africa but lost it to Britain, France, Italy

France

conquered Algeria in 1830

Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco

3 countries conquered by France in Africa

settler colony

French made Algeria into a _______________

Egypt

ruled by Khedive

loans

way that Egypt paid for modernization in Africa

Egypt

in debt to Britain because of loans for modernization

Suez Canal

dug by French for the French, but then bought by Brits and gave them a shorter route to India

1869

year French started digging Suez Canal

protectorate

representative from Britain comes to ruler in a country and helps manage the country: train army, make you stronger, but you will still be in charge, so less work for them but still have power and money

Egypt

protectorate for Britain

Sudan

country up-river in Africa, populated by black Africans that have Islamic culture; ruled by Mahdi

Mahdi

ruler of Sudan, did not like Brits coming into his country so he slaughtered a group of them, Brits came back with machine guns and won

Omdurman

war between Sudanese and British, Brits won because they had better weapons and were more industrialized

Fashoda

place on Nile in Sudan where French and Brits almost go to war over Sudan

Libya, Somalia

Italy conquers these countries in Africa

Ethiopia

Italy invaded this country but lost in 1885, became a stand for African pride

West Africa

Senegal down to Angola in Africa, densely populated

West Africa

center of slave trade in Africa

1833

year Africa outlawed slave trade

malaria, yellow fever

2 diseases in West Africa that kept people (other than Africans) from invading

Quinine

medicine that suppressed malaria, produced from bark of tree native to Ecuador

Liberia

US sets up here as a protectorate, a state for former slaves; US returned slaves here, large numbers sent; b/c it had protection from US, it was not a colony

Central Africa

region of Africa dominated by one of the world's greatest tropical basins, Congo Basin

Congo Basin

starts in mountains on east coast and curves slowly into Africa and covers a great deal of land, before dumping into the ocean; cannot go upstream

Henry Stanley

sent to Congo to find David Livingston; carries steam boat parts up mountains and reassembles them at the lake after they cross the falls, start down river and finds shores of Great Victoria and Livingston

David Livingston

man who left Zanzibar to find origin of Congo and convert natives; found by Henry Stanley

Leopold II

King that approaches Henry Stanley about an idea to make a government in the Congo

Henry Stanley

approached by King Leopold II about creating a government for the Congo

Belgian Congo

Stanley sets up this government in Congo with King Leopold II's support

rubber

in reality, the Belgian Congo was set up by Leopold to make African workers collect _____ from trees to send back to England to make money

George Washington Williams

African American who wanted to help spread the word about the Congo, planned a personal trip to Congo and saw what was really going on in the country; came back and told everyone what he had seen but no one believed him b/c he was black; goes back to Congo with a Kodak and gets evidence of what is going on, people were shocked

Joseph Conrad

wrote novel set in Belgian Congo about a man going into the Heart of Darkness to find an official of Belgian Company who had gone crazy; when he finds official he sees what all is happening and comes back and tells everyone about what he saw

The Heart of Darkness

novel written by Joseph Conrad about a man searching for official in Belgian Congo and what he finds

Southern Africa

region of Africa where climate is similar to Europe's

Zulu

sophisticated, agricultural tribe of Africans pushing south conquering other peoples, had good solid weapons

Dutch Cape Colony

new colony, about half way from Europe to East Asia; climate is same as Europe, so European food will grow; place for people and ships to refuel on the way to Asia

Afrikaners

Dutch colonists that came to Cape Colony to set up farms, ranches, vineyards

Boers

another name for Afrikaners

British Cape Colony

area around Dutch Cape Colony was British, name for this was ___________________

Great Trek

Afrikaners don't want to be under British rule, so they gather everything up and go north

Transvaal, Orange Free State

2 Dutch lands around Dutch Cape Colony

Zulu War

war between English and Zulu (of Africa), English win and take Natal

Cecil Rhodes

conquers Rhodesia and names it after himself; was a sickly child, sent to Africa for the fresh air, loved Africa; creates diamond company with other men, becomes very rich

Cecil Rhodes

governor of Cape Colony

diamonds

these are discovered while Rhodes is in Africa, he makes a fortune off of them

Boer War

Rhodes wants diamonds, Boers go to Germans to buy guns so they will be prepared for Rhodes' invasion; when they attack Boers slaughter them, British troops flood South Africa; Brits hold colonists in concentration camps, so they cannot give food to soldiers; Brits send in Australians to kill, they are tried for murder and killed

South Africa

union, dominion, set up here in 1910, after Boer War

1910

year South Africa was declared dominion

Apartheid

institutionalized racism

upper class

South Africa---whites could live anywhere, had access to all

middle class

South Africa---mixed people, south Asians, Indians (colored)

lower class

South Africa---Native Africans, made to live on homelands

Berlin Conference

1885- Bismarck went to Germany to say they needed rules for conquering other countries, Bismarck said they would fight others, but not themselves

1885

year of Berlin Conference

colonies

after Berlin Conference, ______ rule themselves, WITHOUT someone ruling over them

protectorates

after Berlin Conference, ______ rule themselves, but king rules over ruler

China

country making money off everyone else, trading goods, but only taking money, gold, or silver in return

opium

British sell this to Chinese, all become addicted

Quig Dynasty

not technically Chinese, but Manchurians (Manchu)

Manchurians

people of Quig Dynasty

Opium War

Quig Dynasty did not like English selling Chinese the drug, so sent official to English to tell them to leave; didn't leave, started fighting, Brits win

Hong Kong

Brits kept this island after Opium War, until 1997 when China took it back

Extraterritorial Rights

British given these rights; British citizens do not have to follow Chinese law, but have different rights, British Law, that gives Brits great powers in China

Taiping Rebellion

Hong Shoo Kwon ("Jesus' brother", "God's Chinese Son")--fought through northern China, Manchu leaders cannot handle this and call for mercenaries to train their people to fight, eventually Manchu win; left heartland of China devastated

Spheres of Influence

everyone had different pieces of China; Germany, France, Britain, Russia, countries have specific rights in specific regions

Germany, France, Britain, Russia

China's spheres of influence

open door policy

US wanted to trade with China-- free zone for business

Boxer Rebellion

secret society rises up within Chinese people, no guns or swords but fists (kung fu); called Boxers by rivals; beat any white people who they see; European countries, US, Japan all invade China at same time, Quig Dynasty destoyed

republic

after Boxer Rebellion, last emperor is told he is no longer ruler of China, ________ is declared as the new government

Sun Yat-sen

said that Chinese should rule China, he was a nationalist

Japan

country that had been isolated, after thousands of years was converted to Christianity after foreigners came in

Dutch

only country Japan allowed to trade with them

shogun

ruler of Japan

Matthew Perry

in 1853, this person sent to get Japan to trade with US, in the ends they agree to trade with US

1853

year Matthew Perry was sent to Japan to get them to trade with US

Mutsuhito

overthrows Shogun and rules directly himself and modernizes Japan

Meiji Emperor

"enlightened emperor", called Mutsuhito this after he overthrows Shogun and rules Japan himself

industrializes

Mutsuhito _______ Japan faster than any other country

Japanese Imperialism

Japan joins war with European countries

Sino-Japanese War

war between China and Japan; Japan takes islands and cities, begins to push farther into country, join Europeans in fight against China

Russo-Japanese War

war between Russia and Japan, Japan wins

Korea

after Russo-Japanese War, Japan is given this little country by the US

Teddy Roosevelt

US president during Age of Imperialism

Monroe Doctrine

document that says that the New World is the Americans and English should stay out

Alaska

state bought by US from Russia

Hawaii

state US took and brought in Japanese and Filipino workers to work

Spanish American War

America wanted to fight with Spain, b/c they wanted Cuba

Cuba

all that's left of Spanish Empire, country US wants

Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines

America liberates these colonies of Spain

Philippines

rebellion to defeat Spanish was here, William Howard Taft was to rule over this country

Panama Canal

America wanted a canal, French has already started to build a canal here, but failed; Americans succeeded

Colombia

owned Panama, wanted to charge money for Americans building Panama Canal

Ferdinand de Lesseps

dug Suez Canal and help dig Panama Canal

Malaria

Americans stop this disease in Panama; drained swamps, put diesel fuel in swamps, used mosquito nets

Theodore Roosevelt

Added Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Document

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