Human Geography Vocab - Chapter 14
|Acid Deposition|| sulfer oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere-where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric adic and nitric acid-and return to the earth's surface|
Acid depositions contributes to acid rain and its extremely harmful effects.
|Acid Precipitation|| conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain,snow, or fog|
Acid precipitation is a result of acid deposition.
|Active Solar Energy Systems|| Solar energy systems that collect energy through the use of physical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors|
Active solar energy systems use moving parts or collectors to power cells and produce energy.
|Air Pollution|| concentration of trace substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at as greater level than occurs in average air|
Air pollution is a major problem as more and more fossil fuels are burned.
|Animate Power|| power supplied by people or animals|
Animate power is created through animate objects; hence its name.
|Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)|| amount of oxygen required by aquatic baceria to decompose a given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution|
The more waste being decopmpose by bacteria, the higher biochemical oxygen demand and therefore the higher the pollution in the water.
|Biodiversity|| the number of species within a specific habitat|
Biodeiversity is important in maintaining planet earth.
|Biomass Fuel|| fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste|
Biomass fuel is being created as alternatives to fossil fuels.
|Breeder Reactor|| a nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium|
Breeder reactors are significant sources of energy but also produce toxic wastes.
|Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)|| a gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire extinguishers|
Chlorofluopcarbons are extremely harmful once they enter the atmosphere.
|Conservation|| the sustainable use and managements of a natural resource through comsuming it at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced|
Conservation is key to ensuring a resource will last a long time.
|Ferrous|| metals, including iron, that are utilized in the production of iron and steel|
Any metals used in and containing iron are considered ferrous.
|Fission|| the splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy|
Fission is the basis of certain nuclear reactions.
|Fossil Fuel|| energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago|
Fossil fuels are extremely useful to harvest energy but release a lot of gas into the atmospher when used at extremely high rates.
|Fusion|| creation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium|
Fusion, like fission, is another form of creating energy from nuclear reactions.
|Geothermal Energy|| energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks|
Geothermal energy is a less harmful alternative to the use of fossil fuels for energy.
|Greenhouse Effect|| anticipated increase in Earth's temperature caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface|
Fossil fuels being burned are excelerating the Greenhouse effect and disrupting earth's climate.
|Hydroelectric Power|| power generated from moving water|
Hydroelectric power in an extrmely efficient alternative to other energy sources.
|Inanimate Power|| power supplied by machines|
Inanimate power is harvested from non living objects.
|Nonferrous|| metals utilized to make products other than iron and steel|
If a metal is not used in iron or does not contain iron it is considered nonferrous.
|Nonrenewable Energy|| a source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted|
Nonrenewable energy sources must be conserved to ensure they last a long time.
|Ozone|| a gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation found in the stratosphere, a zone between 15 and 50 kilometers (9 to 30 miles) above Earth's surface|
The ozone protects humans but is slowly being destroyed by our changing of earth.
|Passive Solar Energy System|| solar energy systems that collect energywithout the use of mechanical devices |
Passive solar energy systems simply absorb the energy in the sun's rays.
|Photochemical Smog|| an atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution, expecially from motor vehicle emissions|
Photochemical smog is extremely prevalent in cities.
|Photovoltaic Cell|| solar energy cells, usally made from silican, that collect solar rays to generate electricity|
Passive solar energy systems contain photovoltaic cells in order to capture energy.
|Pollution|| addition of more waste than a resource can accomodate|
Pollution is harmful to the environment, it has detrimental effects on planet earth.
|Potential Reserve|| the amount of a resource in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist|
Potential reserves are scientific estimates of resources within the planet.
|Preservation|| maintenance of a resource in its present condition with as little human impact as possible|
Preservation is the key to ensuring the planet is damaged as little as possible.
|Proven Reserve|| the amount of a resource remainingn discovered deposits|
Contrary to potential which is a guess, proven resource is a calculated number that explains what's left of a resource.
|Radioactive Waste|| materials from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation; contact with such particles may be harmful or lethal to people; therefore, the Materials must be safely stored for thousands of years|
Despite the efficiency of breeder reactors, they result in a lot of radioactive waste.
|Recycling|| the speration, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of unwanted material|
Recycling reduces pollution by a significant amount.
|Renewable Energy|| a resource that has theoretically umlimited suply and is not depleted when used by humans|
Renewable enrgy sources are not of much concern to depletion as long as they remain renewable.
|Resource|| a substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access and is socially acceptable to use|
Resources are anything that is helpful in the world that can be utilized.
|Sanitary Landfill|| a place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bull-dozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin.|
Sanitary landfills are used to store human waste but reduce its environmental impact.
|Sustainable Development||the level of development that can be maintaned in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development|
Sustanable Developement will and is necessary to reducing human impact on the earth as well as ensuring economically feasible resources for later down the road.