What are the differences between imaging of cystic masses and solid masses?
Cystic Masses: round, thin walled, and presents anechoic w/ enhanced through-transmission or post. acoustic enhancement on US. They do not enhance on CT/MRI
Solid Masses: non-uniform, echoic to a similar extent as the surrounding tissue on US. They will enhance on CT/MRI
How is enhancement used in renal imaging?
Enhancement is used to display obstructions and differentiate masses with renal imaging
What is a tomogram?
Image taken in one specific plane in order to remove obscurity (one plane is kept in focus and everything else is blurred out)
How is a tomogram used in imaging?
It allows for an image of a specific organ at a specific time to be taken, allowing contrast to be followed in imaging protocols such as IVP's.
Pt presents w/ acute scrotal pain, what do you do?
First, r/o TESTICULAR TORSION- color flow Doppler. Decreased color = Testicular torsion,immediate surgery. Increased color = inflammation, no surgery. US is modality of choice.
What are the phases of an IVP?
Nephrogram phase- 1min post injection, can appreciate gross appearance and location of kidney's
Pyelogram phase- 3-4min post injection, can appreciate the calices, infundibulum and pelivses
What study is now considered the "renal colic protocol"?
NON-contrast CT (has replaced IVP)
What are the differences between testicular masses and extratesticular masses?
Testicular- usually malignant (seminoma, lymphoma, leukemia) which appear hypoechoic on US
Extratesticular- usually benign (hydrocele, varicele, hematoma) which appear anechoic on US