preservation of ancient learning
What is the greatest legacy of the Byzantine civilization?
Urban II expected submission of Byzantine Church (Eastern Orthodox Church) to Rome
In return for assistance versus the Turks, what quid pro quo did the papacy anticipate from the Byzantine Church
1 - absolution of sins to those killed in battle
2 - wealth and territorial rule
3 - freedom from creditors
4 - way to direct behavior of knights - they were running amok, so the Crusades got them out of Europe
What incentives were offered to knights as motivation to participate in the Crusades?
held Holy Land by building elaborate castles
How were the crusaders able to retain the territories they conquered in the Holy Land following the First Crusade?
1 - pope wanted to re-unite Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches
2 - crusaders needed $$$$$ and military aid promised by "pretender"
3 - Venetians wanted monopoly on Byzantine trade
For what reasons did the crusaders agree to place a "pretender" on the Byzantine throne during the Fourth Crusade?
1 - seriously weakened Byzantine Empire
2 - made possible later Muslim advance into Eastern Europe
3 - Byzantine Empire - no longer great bulwark (protector/defender) of Western civilization
What were the results of the Fourth Crusade?
~increased level of trade - taste for Near Eastern goods - enriched the supplier
~Crusaders learned to build better ships, make more accurate maps, use magnetic compass, and improve weapons
In what ways did Western Europe benefit from contact with the Arab world of the Near East during the Crusades?
1 - Crusader states - a - relatively weak in area divided among powerful Muslim rivals
2 - arrival of Crusaders helped unite Muslims against common enemy
What impact did the arrival of the Crusaders have on the Muslims of the Near East?
3-Horse Collar (Harness)
What new technologies led to greater food production beginning in the 12th century in Western Europe?
What form of government did the city of Venice have?
1 - rebellion - seldom used
2 - charter - grant that guaranteed independence - a - set out rights and liberties of town
What methods were used by towns to gain independence from feudal control?
1 - towns paid taxes - (to the king) a - increased independence of towns from nobles b - increased power of the kings
2 - increased power of king made central government stronger a - strong factor in breakdown of feudalism
Why did kings grant charters to towns?
1 - townspeople did not have individual rights - a - possessed only those rights derived from being resident of particular town
2 - freedom - man living in town for year and a day was free - why people lived in towns
3 - exempt status - townsmen exempt from manorial service and duties
4 - town justice - trials held in town courts - not feudal courts
5 - commercial privileges - citizens had right to trade in town and charge tolls to outsiders
6 - "Stadtluft Macht Frei" - "city air makes free"
What were the "liberties" enjoyed by towns and their residents?
~anti-semitic laws kept Jews from trades and other economic activities
~Jews became moneylenders to earn living
~connection of Jews to moneylending led to
- increased prejudice
- negative stereotype
Why were so many moneylenders Jews? What impact did the connection of Jews with moneylending have on the image/stereotype held by many Christians in the late Middle Ages?
1 - regulate trade
2 - maintain commercial monopoly in town
3 - establish rules for competition
What were the functions of the merchant guilds?
1 - control product price
2 - regulate quality
3 - monitor number of members
4 - fix wages and hours
What were the functions of the craft guilds?
1 - schools operated separately within community
2 - "Town and Gown Riots" (students wore academic gowns - for warmth and to disguise differences of wealth)
Why were university students so disliked by townspeople in the late Middle Ages?
What literary development in the High Middle Ages made literature more available to the general public and helped to increase literacy?
~Bible stories were portrayed in sculpture, carvings, and stained glass in cathedrals
- provided religious education to people because most illiterate
Why were cathedrals in general, and Gothic cathedrals in particular, referred to as "Bibles in Stone"?
~European monarchs levied taxes, raised armies, and cooperated on a large scale, nobles died in battle without leaving heirs, and their lands passed to kings, and many lesser nobles sold their estates or allowed their serfs to buy their freedom
How did the Crusades contribute to the end of the feudal system in Western Europe?
~they helped to speed the pace of changes already underway in western Europe
~They helped break down feudalism and increase the authority of kings
~European monarchs levied taxes, raised armies, and cooperated on a large scale
~Some nobles died in battle without leaving heirs, and their lands passed to kings
~To raise money for weapons and supplies, many lesser nobles sold their estates or allowed their serfs to buy their freedom to become freeholders on the land or artisans in the towns
How did the Crusades contribute to the growth of strong central government in Western Europe?
~it put the feudal classes in an economic squeeze
~Kings, clergy, and nobles became dependent on money from bands to pay their expenses
- To pay off their loans, they had to raise taxes, sell their lands, or demand money in place for traditional feudal services
~As serfs became able to buy their freedom, the feudal system declined
How did the growth of the money economy contribute to the decline of the feudal system?
~Towns had almost no sanitation, and a constant stench attacked the people from the garbage and sewage tossed into the streets
~These conditions caused the rapid spread of diseases such as diphtheria, typhoid, influenza, and malaria
~In crowded towns such diseases often turned into epidemics and took many lives, like the bubonic plague
What conditions in medieval towns and cities made living in them very difficult, and somewhat undesirable?
What was/were the attraction(s) of living in a town or city in the late Middle Ages?