A suface lying at a right angle to the source of illumination, which reflects the maximum amountof light; the lighter and brighter part.
Surfaces which do not lie at right angles to the source of illumination or are obscured by other surfaces and which reflect little or no light.
The face is three noses long.
The length of the nose is equal to the length of the ear.
The width of the nose at the wings is equal to the width of an eye.
The face of 5 eyes wide from zygomatic arch to zygomatic arch.
The distance between the eye is equal to the width of 1 eye.
The mouth is two eyes wide.
The superior border of the ear is on the same horizontal plane as the eyebrows.
The inferior border of the ear is on the same horizontal plane as the base of the nose.
The face is three ears long.
Thumb and Index Finger equals
The length of the ear.
The length of the nose.
The normal hairline to the root of the nose.
The base of the nose to the bottom of the chin
The following 4 measurements are equal
Ear passage to the tip of the nose.
Eyebrow to the base of the chin.
Hairline to the base of the nose.
Ear pasage to the ear passage.
Combinations / variations of Basic Facial Forms
Vertical-concave - Least Common
Basic Linear Forms of Facial Profiles
Convex - most common type
Concave -least common type - chin protrudes beyond the Infintine retrousse plane
Head Shapes From a Frontal View
Oval - most common -- so called ideal shape.
Triangle - least common head shape
The outer rim of the ear has the general shape of a question mark. It begins superior to the lobe and ends by attaching to the cheek.
The fossa between the inner and outer rims of the ear. It is the shallowest depression of the ear.
The inner rim of the ear. It starts at the superior border of the lobe and continues upward until it ends by becoming the crura. It forms the superior and posterior walls of the concha.
Triangular Fossa * 2nd deepest *
Depression between the crura. * The 2nd deepest depression * of the ear.
Concha * deepest *
Concave shell of the ear; * the deepest depression * of the ear located posterior and superior to the ear passage.
An elevation protecting the ear passage. Arise from the posterior margin of the lateral cheek.
A small eminence obliquely opposite the tragus. Located on the superior border of the lobe of the ear.
Inferior fatty 1/3 of the ear; not soft inferior part of the ear. Attaches to the cheek. Not made of cartilage.
The prominent organ of smell located in the center 1/3 of the face. It is the beginning of the respritory tract and is triangular or pyramidal in shape.
A classification given to the nose that is long, narrow, and high bridged, common to individuals of Western European descent.
A classification given to the nose that is short, broad and has a minimum of projection; common to individiuals of African descent.
A classification given to a nose that is medium broad and medium low bridged; predominate among people of Asian descent.
NOSE: Profile classification: straight
Grecian / Greek characterized as straight from tip to root - MOST common.
NOSE: Profile classification: Convex
Roman, aquiline or hooked. Curved as the beak or an eagle, a nose that has a hook as seen from a profile; may exhibit a hump in the bridge.
NOSE: Profile classification: Concave
Snub, pug, infantine, or retrousse. Characterized by a dip in the bridge and turned up
The paired nasal bone are inferior to the glabella, forming a dome over the superior portion of the nasal cavity.
The orifice in the bony face bounded by the margins of the nasal bones and the maxilla.
Nasal spine of the maxilla
The sharp, bony projection located medially at the inferior margin of the nasal cavity. This indicates the bony length of the nose.
The anterior protruding ridge of the nose extending from the root to the tip. It includes the bridge.
The apex, top, of the pyramidal mass of the nose, which lies directly inferior to the forehead. The concave dip inferior to the forehead.
Dome over the nasal cavity. Point of greatest projection. The ached portion of the nose supported by the nasal bones.
Lateral lobes of the nose. The widest part of the nose bordered by the nasal sulcus and the anterior nares.
The fleshy termination of the nasal septum at the base of the nose located between the nostrils. The most inferior part of the nose.
Side of the nose
Lateral walls of the nose located between the wings of the nose and bridge. They recede laterally from the dorsum.
Shape of the Head
is influenced by it's bony structure.
It usually will use the following points of reference.
1. Bi-parietal width
2. Bi-zygomatic width
3. Bi-mandibular width
4. Length of head - vertex of chin base
is considered the LEAST common for testing purposes.
Appears wider at the jaw than cheeks and forehead.
Bilateral forms of the head & facial features - goal:
to compare two sides of the face and features and observe similarities and differences.
Features exhibiting Asymmetry
1. Eyelids and eyebrows
a. the ears exhibit the greatest difference in portion, form & size
b. they also show difference in how they protrudge laterally - away from head
4. Nose and mouth
a. line of closure of lips will/ be/can be different
Surfaces exhibiting a similarity of bilateral curvature
3. superior intregumentary lip
Internal bones of the Ear
have no effect on surface form. They can NOT be used as anatomical guides.
The standard forehead, upper lip and chin form vertical plans, nose not included. Forehead and chin are used for explaination. It is in vertical alignment? Does it recede? There are NINE - 9 - profile combinations TOTAL.
Basic dimensional unit for width measurement; measured from one canthus; lateral, to the other [medial cathus].
Use of Photographs
Secure a recent photograph
Snapshot will show natural facial markings
portraits will show extra light, less facial marking present.
Anatomic Structures for the Temporal Bone Using the Modeled Ear
1. External Auditory Meatus
2. Zygomatic Arch
3. Mandibular Fossa
4. Mastoid Process
External Facial Bones **
1. Nasal Bones - two
2. Zygomatic Bones - two
3. Maxilla - two
4. Mandible - one
Four surfaces that exhibt similar bilateral curvatures: **
3. Superior intugumetary lip
Horizontally, the face is divided by 8 lines which creatd 6 special zones.
1. Divide face into 2 equal 1/2 by drawing a line at the: 1. vertex, top, of the cranium 2. The line of the eye closure, 3. Base of the chin
2. Divide the face into 3 equal part by drawing lines through the: 1. hairline 2. eyebrows 3. base of the nose 4. base of the chin
3. Divide the are between the base of the nose and the base of the chin into 3 equal part by drawing lines through: 1. base of the nose 2. line of the lip closure 3. top of the chin 4. base of the chin.
Vertical lines are used to determine the width of head feature by using the width of the eye as a standard of measurement.
1. Draw a line down from the medial corner of each eye. This line will extend to the corner of the wing of the nose.
2. Extend a line down from the lateral corner of each eye. This line will extend to the sides of the face.
3. Extend a line down from the middle of the eye. This line will extend to the corner of the mouth.