photocynthetic prokaryotic cells that carry out oxygenic photosynthesis like plants and algae. containt chlorophyll a, beta carotene, xanthophylls, blue phycocyanin, and red phycoerythrin
present in cyanobacteria but not in other prokaryotes
photosynthetic saclike membranes in cyanobacteria
specialezed cells in which many cyancobacteria fix nitrogen
well known members of cyanobacteria
anabaena, oscillatoria, anacystis, agmenellum, prochloron, chroococcus, and nostoc
aerobic eukaryons which carry out plant photosynthesis. may be unicellular or multicellular with no significant tissue differentiation. often motile and have a cellulose wall
separation of algae into groups...
is based on 1. the pigments found in their plastids 2. food reserves 3. cell walls
the study of algae
also known as chlorophycophyta. contain chlorophyll a and b and photosynthetic pigments. store starch and oil and have cellulose in their cell walls. chlamydomonas
also called rhodophycophyta. have red plastids and contain chlorophyll a and phycobilins as photosynthetic pigments. store floridean starch (like glycogen) or cellulose with agar and carrageenan in their cell walls. commercial source of agar.
also called chrysophycophyta. plastids are yellow, yellow green, or golden brown. contain chlorophyll a, c1/c2 pigments. store starchlike carbohydrates and oils. diatoms. golden algae have 1 or 2 equal or unequal flagella and their cell surface is covered by characteristic scales
also called bacillariophycophyta. contain chlorophyll a and carotene pigments just like the golden algae. store polysaccharides and oils and contain silicon embedded in a pectin matrix in their cell walls. highly resistant to degradation and contain the best microfossils. food supply for aquatic animals
also called euglenophycophyta. contain chlorophyll a and b as pigment. they store paramylon and oils, and they have no cell wall. have an elastic pellicle instead. unicellular. flagellated.
also called phaecophycophyta. contain chlorophyll a and c and xanthophylls such as fucoxanthin. store laminarin, fats, and mannitol. contain cellulose and alginic acid in their cell walls with two lateral unequal flagella. multicellular. found in salt water. giant kelp.
also called pyrrophycophyta. contain chlorophyll a, c1, c2 and carotenes. store starch and oils with cellulose cell walls. are red and abundant in tropical water. cause red tides.
non photosynthetic. unicellular eukaryotes. cause devastating human diseases including malaria. have organelles. reproduce asexually by fission or budding
highly resistant, non growing units produced by protozoa
amoeboid protozoa. have pseudopodia. produce actin.
a protein related to muscle protein in animals which aggregates to form microtubules
ciliate protozoa. have two nuclei, micronucleus and macronucleus.
non motile protozoa. parasitic.
a series of physiological tests, usually for coliform bacteria detection, to differentiate e coli bacteria from enterobacter
imvic e coli
is: I +, M +, V -, C -
is: I -, M -, V +, C +
determines which organisms cleave indole from typtophan
first of the four tests in the imvic series. used to differentiate between enteric bacteria which are able to split indole from tryptophan molecule. e. coli, proteus vulgaris, morganella. also used to separate the gram positive rods bacillus alvei from bacillus spp.
methyl red test (mixed acid fermentation)
used to determine the ability of an organism to produce acid from fermentation of glucose. also used to differentiate between colonies of different bacteria. indicator is methyl red. used to differentiate between e coli (mr +) and enterobacter (mr -). color change indicates a ph change.
voges proskauer test (butanediol fermentation)
determines the ability of members of the enterobacteriaceae to produce 2,3 butanediol and ethanol from fermentation of glucose. differentiates enterobacteriaceae. red color change is positive reaction
determines if an organism can utilize citrate as a sole source of carbon. citrate is an intermediate int he krebs cycle. e coli cannot use citrate as a source of carbon cuz it has no citrate permease. enterobacter is positive for citrate. contains inorganic ammonium salts for nitrogen source.
anaerobic process in which glucose is broken down to acids and other gaseous byproducts. formation of acids causes ph indicator, phenol red, to change from red to yellow. the entrapment of gas bubbles in the inverted durham tube inserted in the broth tube is an indication that gases have been produced
non glucose fermentors
a complex medium (undefined) composed of skim milk and litmus. lactose as carbon and energy source and casein as the source of protein. litmus is a ph indicator that is pink at acid and blue when basic. purple between 4.5 and 8.3. turns white on reduction cuz it is an electrong acceptor
4 different kinds of reactions occur when litmus milk is..
inoculated with different bacteria. theses may occur independently or in combination. they are: lactose fermentation, litmus reduction, casein hydrolysis, and casein coagulation
turns litmus pink for acid reaction
is converted to an insoluble precipitate called caseinogen by the enzyme casease and low ph. this is termed acid clot and seen for strep lactis
flagella on either end
flagella on both ends
tuft of flagella on one or both ends
flagella all over the cell
sulfide indole motility test.
used to detect the ability of an organism to produce h2s from the reduction of sulfur in the sim medium to sulfide. also called the iron test
indication of an organisms ability to move away from the inoculation site. stab into soft agar
complex carbohydrate produced by plants
starch hydrolysis test
used to determine which organisms contain enzymes (amylases) to break down starch to other sugars. iodine indicator. in areas where the bacteria have eaten the starch there will be a clear area that contains no more starch therefore the iodine will not turn that area black. iodine will turn all other area black
enzymes that break down amylose and amylopectin to maltose, glucose, and dextrins
used to determine if an organism contains the urease enzyme and thus can metabolize urea. indicator is phenol red. reagent (fuschia) turns bright pink.
triple sugar iron test
tsi. used to determine which bacteria in the family enterbacteriaceae can ferment any or all of the three carbohydrates, sucrose, lactose, and or glucose, in the tsi medium. also used to determinie which bacteria produce co2 from fermentation of any or all of the three sugars. also used to determine which bacteria produce h2s from syteine or sodium thiosulfate in the tsi medium. indicator is ferric ammonium citrate.
noncellular obligate intracellular parasites. contain either dna or rna.
viruses that infect bacteria
phages that specifically infect e coli
causes lysis of the host cell by first taking over the replicative machinery of the cell and then using these resources for creation of the components for new phage. these components are assembled into mature phage. once the cell resources have been depleted the host cell bursts and the phage particles are released to infect other bacterial cells
the majority of infections follow the lytic cycle. however s asmall percentage of phage infections form a stable relationship with the host cell. in these the phage incorporates into the genome of the host at a specific site. this relationship is called a lysogen. lysogenic bacteria grow and replicate normally for any number of generations. yet during times of cellular stress the phage can remove itself from the genome and enter the lytic cycle.
the number of bacteriophages in a sample
change of non virulent bacteria into virulent strains
cells that are able to take in naked dna
a unidirectional transfer of genetic material which requires cell to cell contact
a closed circular extrachromosomal dna capable of self replication