Muscle and Blood Vessel Histology

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Smooth muscle
Longitudinal
Nucleus

What type of muscle is this?
How has it been cut?
What is the red arrow pointing at?

Smooth muscle
Transverse

What type of muscle is this?
How is it cut?

Connective tissue

What is the layer of lighter pink tissue between the muscle tissue of the muscularis externa?

Nucleus of a smooth muscle cell
Nucleus of a fibroblast

What is the red arrow pointing at?
What is the green arrow pointing at?

ECM
An artefact

This is connective tissue. What fills the white space?
What is this space called on a slide?

Skeletal
Smooth

What type of muscle is in the top right of this image?
What type of muscle is int he bottom left of this muscle?

Transversely cut skeletal muscle cell - Outer longitudinal layer
Longitudinally cut mix of smooth and skeletal muscle - Inner circular layer
Muscularis externa

This is from the upper oesophagus.
What type of muscle is in the left box? And what is this layer called?
What type of muscle is in the right box? And what is this layer called?
What do these layers of muscle make up?

Muscularis mucosae

What is the layer of muscle as indictated by the red box?

The cells have been cut in different places
Y: Through the tip of the cells - tip of nucleus seen
R: Through the middle of the cell - nucleus large
G: Through the cytoplasm of the cell - no nucleus

This is transversely cut muscle. Why do the nuclei of the cells appear different sizes/absent?
How have the cells been cut:
Yellow arrows?
Red arrows?
Green circle?
What is the evidence that supports this?

An intercalated disc

This is from the myocardium.
What is the green arrow pointing at?

It has two nuclei
No branching

This is from the myocardium.
What is different about this cell compared to most other cells?
Does this cell show branching?

Yes - on the left

This is from the myocardium.
Does this cell show branching?

Purkinje Fibre

This is from heart tissue
What is this structure?

An intercalated disc

This is from the myocardium.
What is the arrow pointing at?

An intercalated disc

This is from the myocardium.
What is the arrow pointing at?

The myocardium
The pericardium
The endocardium

What layer of the heart is indicated by:
The green box?
The red box?
What layer in not indicated?

A fascicle of cardiac myocytes

This is from the myocardium.
What structure is this?

The endocardium

This is from the heart.
What is the green arrow pointing at?

Part of a purkinje fibre

This is from the heart.
What is this structure?

A large artery to the heart - a coronary artery

Ignore the red box. This is from the heart.
What is the large structure in the centre of the image?

Tunica intima

This is from an artery. What is layer is the green arrow pointing at?

Tunica media
Tunica adventitia

What layer of the blood vessel is indicated by the:
Left box?
Right box?

The inner elastic lamina (IEL)
Elastic fibres in the media
Muscular - IEL is only present in muscular arteries

What is the green arrow on the left pointing at?
What is the green arrow on the right pointing at?
What type of artery is this? ...Why?

External elastic lamina (EEL)
Muscular - EEL is only present in muscular arteries

What is this structure?
What type of artery is this? ...Why?

Media
Elastic - can see lots of elastin fibres

What layer of the blood vessel is this?
What type of artery is this?

Muscular - can see lots of cell nuclei

This is the media of an artery
What type of artery is is?

Elastin fibres

What fibres are these?

The hepatic portal vein

This is the structure of a particular blood vessel. What blood vessel is it? (Take note of the thick layer indicated by the red BOX)

The hepatic artery

The upper blood vessel indicated by the upper circle is the hepatic portal vein. What is the sturcture indicated by the lower circle?

The hepatic portal vein

The lower blood vessel indicated by the lower circle is the hepatic artery. What is the sturcture indicated by the upper circle?

A submucosal gland

What is this structure?

Elastin fibres

This is from the media of an artery. What are the arrows pointing at?

A nerve

What is this structure?

A nerve

What is the structure indicated by the arrow?

A nerve

What is the structure indicated by the arrow?

A nerve

What is the structure indicated by the arrow?

A nerve

What is the structure indicated by the arrow?

An adipocyte

What is the cell indicated by the arrow?

Connective tissue

What is the tissue indicated by the arrow?

A blood vessel

What is the structure indicated by the arrow?

Muscularis externa

What is the layer indicated by the arrows?

Submucosa

What is the layer indicated by the arrows?

Mucosa

What is the layer indicated by the arrows?

Adventitia

What is the layer indicated by the arrows?

Striated muscle

What is skeletal muscle also known as?

Bones

Where are the usual origins and insertions of muscles?

The heart

What does cardiac muscle form?

Walls of hollow organs

What does smooth muscle form?

GI tract
Respiratory tract
Urogenital tract
Blood vessels

What are examples of the organs that smooth muscle make the wall up of? (4)

Striated muscles that are not skeletal or cardiac

What is visceral striated muscle?

Embryonic derivation

Where are visceral striated muscles derived from?

Head and neck

Where is visceral striated muscle found? (2)

Pharynx
Larynx
Oesophagus

What are examples of structures in which visceral skeletal muscles are found? (3)

Connective tissue element
Services (blood vessels and nerves)

When referring to a tissue, what does the term muscle include?

Contractile protein fibres are organised into alomst crystalline array that refracts light

Why does skeletal muscle look striped?

Muscle fibres

What are striated muscle cells also called?

Length: 1mm to 30cm
Diameter: up to 300microns

What is the average length and width of striated muscle cells?

By associated connective tissue

Muscle cells are not attached cell to cell, how are they mechanically connected?

For storage of Ca2+

Why is the sarcoplasmic reticulum well developed in striated muscle cells?

For the influx of Ca2+

Why is the T-tubule system present in muscle cells?

The cell uses alot of ATP in muscle contraction
Need lots of mitochondria to produce it

Why do muscle cells contain many mitochondria?

In the periphery of the cell
(Around the edge)

Where are all the nuclei located in the muscle cell (which is polynucleate)?

Bundles called myofibrils

How are the contractile proteins of muscle cells arranged?

The sarcomere

What is the contractile unit of a muscle cell?

Many

How many nuclei do striated muscle cells have?

Bundles
Sheets
Bands

How are groups of smooth muscle arranged? (3)

Spindle shaped

What is the shape of a smooth muscle cell?

Fusiform

What is the technical word for spindle shaped?

Through gap junctions

How are smooth muscle cells electrically coupled to one another?

Less

Does smooth muscle contain more or less connective tissue than striated muscle?

Mononucleate

Are smooth muscle cells mononucleate or polynucleate?

The cell has a single nucleus

What does mononucleate mean?

In the centre of the cell

Where is the nucleus of a smooth muscle cell located?

2-10 microns
Usually 5 microns

What is the diameter of a smooth muscle cells?

0.2 mm
10-600 microns

What is the length of smooth muscle cell?

Very developed

How developed is the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the skeletal muscle cells?

Poorly developed

How developed is the sarcoplasmic reticulum in smooth muscle cells?

Plasmalemmal structures

What structures do smooth muscle cells have to utilise to make up for poorly developed sarcoplasmic reticulum?

Caveolae

What are the plasmalemmal structures of smooth muscles called?

Smooth muscle cells

In which of the three types of muscle cells are T-tubules not present?

A branching of cells

What is a syncitium?

Cardiac muscle cells

Which of the three types of muscle levels can form syncitiums?

Through intercalated discs

How are cardiac muscle cells mechanically and electrically joined together?

Desmosomes
Gap junctions

What are intercalated discs made out of? (2)

One - occasionally two

How many nuclei do cardiac muscle cells have?

Centrally

Where are the nuclei located within a cardiac cell?

Terminal cisternae

What does the sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiac muscle cells lack?

...

What are terminal cisternae?

Cardiac muscle

Which of the three muscle types has the most mitochondria within cells?

...

How are contractile proteins of cardiac muscle arranged?

Sarcomere

Whats is the contractile unit of cardiac muscle cells?

10-20microns

What is the diameter of a cardiac muscle cell?

50-100microns

What is the length of a cardiac muscle cells?

Autonomic nerves

Which nerves innervate smooth muscle?

Very unspecialised

How specialised are autonomic neuromuscular junctions?

Humoral

What other control, other than nervous, are smooth muscle cells under?

Contract without neural stimulation

What can cardiac cells do that other cells cannot?

Pacemaker cells

What is the timing of the contraction of cardiac myocytes controlled by?

Specialised cardiac muscle that determine the pace of cardiac contractions

What are pacemakers cells?

Continuous
Fenestrated
Discontinuous

What are the three types of capillary?

Continuous

What is the most common type of capillary?

Continuous

Which capillary type if the most impermeable?

Gap junctions

How are the endothelial cells of continuous capillaries connected to each other?

A hole

What is a fenestrae?

Capillaries in which the endothelial cells have small pores

What are fenestrated capillaries?

Junctional complexes

How are adjacent cells of fenestrated capillaries connected?

Very permeable

How permeable are fenestrated kidneys?

Bowmans capsule in kidney
GI tract in villi of small intestine

Where are fenestrated capillaries typically found?

In the liver

Where are discontinuous capillaries found?

Hepatic sinusoids

What do discontinuous capillaries form?

Reticular fibres

What are discontinuous capillaries supported by?

Unattached/Unconnected

How may adjacent endothelial cells of discontinuous capillaries appear?

Functional tissue of an organs as distinguished from connective and supporting tissues

What is parenchyma tissue?

Connective tissues
Supporting tissues

What is parenchyma tissue distinguished from? (2)

Almost no barrier

What kind of barriers between the blood and the parenchyma do discontinuous capillaries provide?

The circulatory system

What is the lymphatic system a part of?

The vascular system

What is the lymphatic system not a part of?

Tissues
Lymphatic vessels
Lymph node
Lymphatic vessels
Thoracic lymph node
Vena cava

What is the pathway that lymph takes from tissues to vena cava?

Fat
Protein
Electrolytes

What does lymph contain? (3)

Homeostasis of extracellular space

What is lymph involved in?

Numerous valves

What is the main notable structure of lymphatic vessels?

1-2mmHg

What is the pressure of the lymphatic system?

The pressure is so low, values prevent any back flow as the lymph is moving against gravity to return to the vena cava

Why do lymphatic vessels need valves?

(~) 50 mmHg

What pressures can the lymphatic system rise to during intense muscular activity (e.g. exercise or getting a massage)?

Circulatory system

In what system are all components lined with endothelial cells?

Simple squamous epithelial cells

What are endothelial cells?

Humoral control
(Blood borne factors and secretions)

What are endothelial cells mainly under the control of?

They maintain the potential to divide

Why can endothelial cells regenerate?

Clotting factors
Anti-clotting factors
Vasoconstrictors
Vasodilators

What types of molecules can endothelial cells secrete? (4)

Factor VIII

Give an example of a clotting factor secreted by an endothelial cells?

Prostacyclin

Give an example of an anticlotting factor secreted by an endothelial cell?

...

Give an example of a vasoconstrictor molecule secreted by an endothelial cell?

NO
ATP

Give an example of a vasodilator molecule secreted by an endothelial cell? 92)

Conductance/distributing vessels

What are the main types of blood vessels?

Arterioles

What is the main resistance vessel?

Peripheral resistance

What are arterioles major contributors to?

Blood pressure

Because arterioles are contributors to peripheral resistance, what do they also indirectly contribute to?

Capillaries
Post-capillary venules
Small venules

Name three different exchange vessels?

Exchange of nutrients, gases and metabolites with the tissue

What are the exchange vessels main function?

Veins
Shunt vessels

What are the two main conductance vessels?

...

What are shunt vessels?

Arterio-venous anastomoses

What does AVA stand for?

In short circuit capillary beds

Where are AVAs and metarterioles found?

Control perfusion through capillary beds

What do AVAs and metarterioles do?

Tunica intima
Tunica media
Tunica adventitia

What are the three main layers of blood vessels?

The innermost layer of the vessel

What is the tunica intima of a blood vessel?

Endothelial cells
Connective tissue

What are the components of tunica intima? (20

The middle layers of blood vessels

What is the tunica media of a blood vessel?

Smooth muscle
Connective tissue

What are the components of tunica media? (2)

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