Insulin is synthesized and released by the...
After a meal, which hormone is responsible for moving glucose into the body's cells?
Fructose is the sweetest natural sugar.
Recommended treatment for type 2 diabetes includes
selecting carbohydrates that are rich in fiber.
The currency of energy for the cells is _____. (Be sure to write your answer as an abbreviation using all capital letters.)
The three components of total energy expenditure include ________
basal metabolic rate, physical activity, and the thermic effect of food.
Being underweight does NOT increase a person's risk of developing
infection and illness
What is the National Weight Control Registry?
an ongoing project detailing the habits of people who have lost at least 30 pounds and maintained their weight for at least one year
Carbohydrate loading is effective for most athletes and poses no disadvantages.
Consuming high glycemic foods immediately after exercising can enhance glycogen storage.
In the body, glycogen is stored in the ________ and the skeletal muscles.
Which of the following is a fat replacer?
Sex hormones and adrenal hormones are substances derived from which class of lipid?
Which of the following ergogenic aids has been banned in the United States?
gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)
In which of the following events would carbohydrate loading NOT be beneficial?
George plays basketball for his high school team and he is concerned that he is not consuming enough kilocalories to support his activity. Which of the following would be the BEST indicator that he is not consuming adequate kilocalories?
He is losing weight.
Conduction of nerve signals and contraction of muscles depends on the proper balance of ________
A/n ________ is a body protein that is stored in a gland and secreted to an organ to restore normal body conditions or balance.
A woman with a hip-to-waist ratio higher than .80 is at an increased risk for the development of some chronic diseases.
Lower-body obesity significantly increases one's risk for chronic disease.
Because of their increased protein needs, it is unhealthy for athletes to choose to become vegetarians.
People with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 are considered ________.
Invisible or "hidden" fats are ones that are translucent at room temperature.
A type of protein energy malnutrition that results from a short-term deficiency of protein is ________.
A ________ fatty acid has hydrogen atoms located on the same side of the double bond in an unsaturated fatty acid.
Which of the following foods is a source of complete protein?
Plant foods tend to be high in ________ fats.
The FIT principle considers three factors in achieving an appropriate overload for physical training: ________, intensity, and time.
Protein ________ involves both the synthesis of new proteins and the breakdown of existing proteins to provide amino acids for building new proteins.
Over secretion of the hormone leptin will result in weight gain.
The primary determinant of basal metabolic rate is the amount of lean body mass one has.
To facilitate the digestion of dietary fats, the gallbladder stores and releases a substance known as ________
Which of the following foods are rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids?
olive oil and cashew nuts
In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration issued an OPTIONAL recommendation to list the amounts of trans fatty acids on the Nutrition Facts panel of food products.
All of the following are associated with type 1 diabetes EXCEPT
The thrifty gene theory suggests that ________
some people possess a gene that causes them to expend less energy than other people.
The primary determinant of basal metabolic rate is an individual's ________
lean body mass
Miguel weighs 250 pounds and is trying to lose weight. He decides to start an exercise program and starts walking (2 mph) for 30 minutes, five days a week. This activity burns 0.044 kcals/kg body weight/minute. How many additional kcals will Miguel burn each week with this exercise regime?
Overconsumption of simple sugars causes hyperactivity and behavioral problems in children.
Under normal physiological conditions, every cell of the body is capable of making each type of protein needed by the body.
Ketones are produced for energy when fat is broken down because ________ intake is insufficient.
Glycolysis can be sustained only for a brief period of time (less than 3 minutes).
The best way to stimulate growth of skeletal muscle is to eat a high-protein diet.
Which of the following is NOT a health problem related to eating too much sugar?
hyperactivity in children
Individuals with untreated ________ are at risk for developing ketoacidosis.
Which of the following is NOT a side effect of carbohydrate loading?
The FIT principle is _________.
the principle that a good physical fitness program should be based on frequency, intensity, and time.
Approximately ________ of Americans report that they do not engage in any leisure-time activity.
When a person's weight exceeds 100% of normal it is defined as ________ obesity.
The thermic effect of fat is higher than that of carbohydrate or protein.
One distinct advantage of the BMI is that it is able to account for body composition.
Red blood cells and the brain rely on ________ for energy.
Which of the following conditions is NOT associated with untreated diabetes?
People attempting to lose weight will be most successful if they limit their consumption of fat to less than 15% of kilocalories.
Which of the following describes lipids?
organic nutrients that are insoluble in water
The key structural components of a cell's membrane is(are) ________.
Soybeans are good sources of protein, and the protein quality is almost identical to that of meat.
The type of fat distribution pattern associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease is known as ________-shaped fat patterning
Diets high in ________ and trans fatty acids contribute to chronic diseases, including heart disease and cancer.
The essential amino acid found in the shortest supply or missing from the amino acid pool is called a(n) ________ amino acid.
Sweetened soft drinks are the most common source of added sugars in the American diet.
Fructose is also known as
What is the major monosaccharide found in the body?
How do proteins differ from carbohydrates and fats?
Proteins contain nitrogen
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
the body stores excess protein primarily for energy reserves
After completing an exercise session, adequate hydration in an athlete is best determined by ________
urine that is a light yellow color
Which of the following is NOT a reason fat becomes an energy source for trained athletes?
replaces carbohydrates as an energy source during prolonged, intense training
The best way to stimulate growth of skeletal muscle is to eat a high-protein diet.
Athletes should not take iron supplements unless prescribed by a health care professional.
The label of ready-to-eat cereal box indicates that 1 cup contains 32 grams of carbohydrate, 4 grams of protein, and 2 grams of fat. How many kcals are there in two cups of this cereal?
Which of the following individuals would most likely have the lowest basal metabolic rate?
28-year-old overweight female
All of the following are examples of low carbohydrate, high protein diets EXCEPT
the DASH diet
Body mass index is best described as ________
a ratio of an individual's body weight to their height squared
Waist circumference alone can indicate one's risk for chronic disease.
Studies demonstrate that supplements of androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone are effective in raising testosterone concentrations in the body.
The amount of ATP stored in muscles is unlimited.
The most common sterol in our diet is ________.
Diets high in simple sugar are associated with tooth decay and gum disease.
Which of the following is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?
The major form of fat in both food and the body is ________
The richest dietary source of resistant starch is ________
Which of the following is a monosaccharide?
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
HCl inhibits the digestion of fat so it does not compete with protein digestion
The part of the protein molecule that carries nitrogen is the ________
Eating small frequent meals throughout the day is called ________.
Why are the B vitamins especially important to an athlete?
B vitamins are directly involved in energy metabolism
Andrea thinks that carbohydrate loading could be beneficial to her. Which of the following statements is FALSE about this practice?
Carbohydrate loading is helpful for moderately intense physical activity to maintain fitness.
Which of the following individuals does NOT need to have a medical evaluation before beginning an exercise regimen?
Dinitra, a healthy, active 35-year-old-woman
Hydrochloric acid converts the inactive pepsinogen into its active form pepsin.
Individuals with a body mass index less than 18.5 kg/m2 are classified as ________.
Carbohydrate loading maximizes the amount of ________ stored in skeletal muscles.
Marasmus is a serious condition resulting from inadequate intakes of protein and energy.
The electrically charged particle that assists in maintaining the body's fluid balance is called a/n ________.
A ________ fatty acid contains one double bond between two carbon atoms along the chain.
The best way to treat sports anemia is with iron supplements.
The longer the fatty acid chain, the more ATP can be generated from breakdown.
Basal metabolism, the energy expended to maintain the body's resting functions, accounts for the majority of our total energy output each day.
Because minerals and vitamins have no energy value, they can be disregarded when calculating a day's total energy intake.
In type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease may destroy the ________.
insulin producing cells of the pancreas
Egg whites stiffen when they are whipped. The change that occurs in the protein is called ________
The process through which mRNA copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the ribosome is called ________
At rest, the body's fuel source is primarily
Physical activity not related to a person's occupation is defined as ________
leisure-time physical activity
What is meant by the overload principle?
improving fitness by placing extra physical demand on the body
Studies show that the use of fat replacers will reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and obesity.
The ________ load of a food is determined by the grams of carbohydrate it contains multiplied by its glycemic index.
Hypoglycemia is seen ONLY in people with type 1 diabetes.
An apple-shaped fat pattern increases a person's risk for ________ disease.
A body weight that exceeds 100% of the normal standard for a given height is called ________
All of the following would be good advice for someone who is trying to gain weight EXCEPT
Which of the following enzymes is found in the mouth?
The term complex carbohydrates refers to
Which of the following fatty acids is generally solid at room temperature?
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the process of hydrogenation?
hydrogenation creates a "heart-healthy" product
Chemical bonds in which the amine group of one amino acid binds to the acid group of another amino acid are ________ bonds.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the metabolic syndrome?
The ________ -to-hip ratio is useful to assess one's fat distribution pattern and future chronic disease risk.
All of the following are major classes of dietary lipids EXCEPT
The process of adding hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid and creating a more solid fat is called ________
The recommended intake of ________ fat is less than 7-10 percent of total energy.
Due to the high cost, physical education programs are no longer mandated in schools throughout the United States.
Which of the following are substances in plant foods that are not absorbed by the body?
Which of the following is associated with the development of ketosis?
a diet that contains insufficient carbohydrates
What is the cause of sports anemia?
increased plasma volume due to training
The top of the Physical Activity Pyramid emphasizes activities that ________
we should do less of, such as watch TV
An acid-base imbalance can result in ________
coma and death
In what structure of the mammalian cell are proteins synthesized?
Saturated fatty acids can occur in either a cis or trans shape.
A/n ________ food is one in which nutrients are added that did not originally exist in that food.
The body mass index is a measurement used to determine a person's body composition.
Leptin is a hormone produced by ________ cells.
Amino acids are the primary fuel source utilized in both anaerobic and aerobic exercise.
Where in the body are the majority of triglycerides stored for future energy needs?
Medium chain fatty acids are ________ carbon atoms in length.
Diabetes is a condition in which the body does NOT regulate ________ properly.
Serotonin and cholecystokinin increase satiety in humans.
The ________ effect of food refers to the energy expended to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store the nutrients we eat.
Petra is a long distance track athlete who would like to optimize her glycogen stores. If she weighs 132 pounds, how many grams of carbohydrate should she consume to achieve this goal?
Due to the fermentation process alcoholic beverages are rich sources of dietary maltose.
A technique employed by some endurance athletes to increase their storage of muscle glycogen is
Two amino acids are joined together by a peptide bond to form a dipeptide. What is the by-product of this process?
Which of the following proteins are fundamental to the immune system?
Women are advised to avoid all fish products during pregnancy.
In the stomach, HCl converts the inactive enzyme ________ into its active form pepsin to facilitate the breakdown of proteins.
The process in which a protein loses its shape and function when exposed to acids, heat, and heavy metals is ________.
Lipids with a glycerol backbone and two fatty acids with a phosphate group are ________.
Placing an extra physical demand on the body to improve the fitness level is called the ________ principle.
In which of the following types of exercise would CP (creatine phosphate) be an important source of energy?
sprinting in the 100-meter race
In physical activity lasting less than 1 hour, the most appropriate fluid replacement is ________
Which of the following BEST describes Dr. Barry Sears' The Zone Diet?
high-protein diet designed for competitive athletes
Insulin CANNOT be taken orally. Why?
Insulin is a protein and would be broken down by the human digestive tract if taken orally.
Which of the following hormones is released when your blood sugar is too high?
The storage form of glucose in animals found in the liver and skeletal muscle is
The storage form of glucose in animals is ________.
Which of the following is a rich source of omega-6 fatty acids?
margarine made from corn or safflower oil
Which of the following foods contains invisible fats?
Polypeptides are a string of ________ amino acids.
more than 10
Which of the following supplements would you recommend a vegan add to his/her diet?
When consumed, a high glycemic-index food can cause a sudden rise in blood glucose levels.
Unless labeled as zero trans fatty acids, most margarines will have more trans fatty acids than butter.
Serena is 5'8" tall and weighs 180 pounds. Serena's BMI indicates that she is ________
On average, an individual's BMR decreases approximately 3-5% per decade after they reach ________ years of age.
Heat-producing brown adipose tissue containing uncoupling proteins has been found only in animals and newborn humans.
Lactic acid is an important intermediate of glucose breakdown, playing a critical role in supplying fuel to the working muscle, heart, and resting tissues.
A(n) ________ reaction occurs in the absence of oxygen.
An individual's body ________ refers to the amount of fat tissue mass as compared with lean tissue mass.
Essential amino acids are more important to the human body than nonessential amino acids.
Which part of an individual amino acid distinguishes it from other amino acids?
Despite having decreased their overall percentage of fat calories since the 1960s, Americans are now consuming more calories overall, including total fat.
Which of the following are excellent sources of unsaturated fats?
nuts and nut butters
The two essential fatty acids are ________ and alpha-linolenic acids.
Which of the following BEST describes how ATP provides energy to the body's cells?
Energy is released when a phosphate group is cleaved from the ATP molecule
Marco wants to improve his cardiorespiratory fitness. Which type of activity would be the MOST effective to achieve this goal?
aerobics class three times a week
Mrs. Clancy's doctor has suggested she increase the fiber content of her diet. Which of the following would NOT be good advice for Mrs. Clancy?
Add additional fiber by taking fiber supplements each day.
Which of the following does NOT define a "healthy body weight?"
a weight that is acceptable to society
A limitation in using the body mass index is that it ________
does not take body composition into account
Which of the following is FALSE abut Peptide YY, sometimes called PYY?
occurs at higher levels in obese people
A deficiency of protein can lead to a condition called ________ in which fluid accumulates in the body's tissue spaces.
The majority of obese people have a depressed basal metabolic rate.