Nutrition 1034

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Exam 5

Insulin is synthesized and released by the...

Pancreas

After a meal, which hormone is responsible for moving glucose into the body's cells?

insulin

Fructose is the sweetest natural sugar.

True

Recommended treatment for type 2 diabetes includes

selecting carbohydrates that are rich in fiber.

The currency of energy for the cells is _____. (Be sure to write your answer as an abbreviation using all capital letters.)

ATP

The three components of total energy expenditure include ________

basal metabolic rate, physical activity, and the thermic effect of food.

Being underweight does NOT increase a person's risk of developing

infection and illness

What is the National Weight Control Registry?

an ongoing project detailing the habits of people who have lost at least 30 pounds and maintained their weight for at least one year

Carbohydrate loading is effective for most athletes and poses no disadvantages.

False

Consuming high glycemic foods immediately after exercising can enhance glycogen storage.

True

In the body, glycogen is stored in the ________ and the skeletal muscles.

Liver

Which of the following is a fat replacer?

olestra

Sex hormones and adrenal hormones are substances derived from which class of lipid?

sterols

Which of the following ergogenic aids has been banned in the United States?

gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)

In which of the following events would carbohydrate loading NOT be beneficial?

weightlifting

George plays basketball for his high school team and he is concerned that he is not consuming enough kilocalories to support his activity. Which of the following would be the BEST indicator that he is not consuming adequate kilocalories?

He is losing weight.

Conduction of nerve signals and contraction of muscles depends on the proper balance of ________

electrolytes

A/n ________ is a body protein that is stored in a gland and secreted to an organ to restore normal body conditions or balance.

hormone

A woman with a hip-to-waist ratio higher than .80 is at an increased risk for the development of some chronic diseases.

True

Lower-body obesity significantly increases one's risk for chronic disease.

False

Because of their increased protein needs, it is unhealthy for athletes to choose to become vegetarians.

False

People with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 are considered ________.

overweight

Invisible or "hidden" fats are ones that are translucent at room temperature.

False

A type of protein energy malnutrition that results from a short-term deficiency of protein is ________.

kwashiorkor

A ________ fatty acid has hydrogen atoms located on the same side of the double bond in an unsaturated fatty acid.

cis

Which of the following foods is a source of complete protein?

Chicken

Plant foods tend to be high in ________ fats.

Unsaturated

The FIT principle considers three factors in achieving an appropriate overload for physical training: ________, intensity, and time.

Frequency

Protein ________ involves both the synthesis of new proteins and the breakdown of existing proteins to provide amino acids for building new proteins.

Turnover

Over secretion of the hormone leptin will result in weight gain.

False

The primary determinant of basal metabolic rate is the amount of lean body mass one has.

True

To facilitate the digestion of dietary fats, the gallbladder stores and releases a substance known as ________

bile

Which of the following foods are rich sources of monounsaturated fatty acids?

olive oil and cashew nuts

In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration issued an OPTIONAL recommendation to list the amounts of trans fatty acids on the Nutrition Facts panel of food products.

False

All of the following are associated with type 1 diabetes EXCEPT

Obesity

The thrifty gene theory suggests that ________

some people possess a gene that causes them to expend less energy than other people.

The primary determinant of basal metabolic rate is an individual's ________

lean body mass

Miguel weighs 250 pounds and is trying to lose weight. He decides to start an exercise program and starts walking (2 mph) for 30 minutes, five days a week. This activity burns 0.044 kcals/kg body weight/minute. How many additional kcals will Miguel burn each week with this exercise regime?

750

Overconsumption of simple sugars causes hyperactivity and behavioral problems in children.

False

Under normal physiological conditions, every cell of the body is capable of making each type of protein needed by the body.

False

Ketones are produced for energy when fat is broken down because ________ intake is insufficient.

carbohydrate

Glycolysis can be sustained only for a brief period of time (less than 3 minutes).

True

The best way to stimulate growth of skeletal muscle is to eat a high-protein diet.

False

Which of the following is NOT a health problem related to eating too much sugar?

hyperactivity in children

Individuals with untreated ________ are at risk for developing ketoacidosis.

diabetes mellitus

Which of the following is NOT a side effect of carbohydrate loading?

improved performance

The FIT principle is _________.

the principle that a good physical fitness program should be based on frequency, intensity, and time.

Approximately ________ of Americans report that they do not engage in any leisure-time activity.

25%

When a person's weight exceeds 100% of normal it is defined as ________ obesity.

morbid

The thermic effect of fat is higher than that of carbohydrate or protein.

False

One distinct advantage of the BMI is that it is able to account for body composition.

False

Red blood cells and the brain rely on ________ for energy.

Glucose/carbohydrate

Which of the following conditions is NOT associated with untreated diabetes?

osteoporosis

People attempting to lose weight will be most successful if they limit their consumption of fat to less than 15% of kilocalories.

False

Which of the following describes lipids?

organic nutrients that are insoluble in water

The key structural components of a cell's membrane is(are) ________.

phospholipids

Soybeans are good sources of protein, and the protein quality is almost identical to that of meat.

True

The type of fat distribution pattern associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease is known as ________-shaped fat patterning

apple

Diets high in ________ and trans fatty acids contribute to chronic diseases, including heart disease and cancer.

Saturated

The essential amino acid found in the shortest supply or missing from the amino acid pool is called a(n) ________ amino acid.

limiting

Sweetened soft drinks are the most common source of added sugars in the American diet.

True

Fructose is also known as

levulose

What is the major monosaccharide found in the body?

glucose

How do proteins differ from carbohydrates and fats?

Proteins contain nitrogen

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

the body stores excess protein primarily for energy reserves

After completing an exercise session, adequate hydration in an athlete is best determined by ________

urine that is a light yellow color

Which of the following is NOT a reason fat becomes an energy source for trained athletes?

replaces carbohydrates as an energy source during prolonged, intense training

The best way to stimulate growth of skeletal muscle is to eat a high-protein diet.

false

Athletes should not take iron supplements unless prescribed by a health care professional.

True

The label of ready-to-eat cereal box indicates that 1 cup contains 32 grams of carbohydrate, 4 grams of protein, and 2 grams of fat. How many kcals are there in two cups of this cereal?

324 kcal

Which of the following individuals would most likely have the lowest basal metabolic rate?

28-year-old overweight female

All of the following are examples of low carbohydrate, high protein diets EXCEPT

the DASH diet

Body mass index is best described as ________

a ratio of an individual's body weight to their height squared

Waist circumference alone can indicate one's risk for chronic disease.

True

Studies demonstrate that supplements of androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone are effective in raising testosterone concentrations in the body.

False

The amount of ATP stored in muscles is unlimited.

False

The most common sterol in our diet is ________.

cholesterol

Diets high in simple sugar are associated with tooth decay and gum disease.

True

Which of the following is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?

corn oil

The major form of fat in both food and the body is ________

triglycerides

The richest dietary source of resistant starch is ________

legumes

Which of the following is a monosaccharide?

galactose

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

HCl inhibits the digestion of fat so it does not compete with protein digestion

The part of the protein molecule that carries nitrogen is the ________

amine group

Eating small frequent meals throughout the day is called ________.

grazing

Why are the B vitamins especially important to an athlete?

B vitamins are directly involved in energy metabolism

Andrea thinks that carbohydrate loading could be beneficial to her. Which of the following statements is FALSE about this practice?

Carbohydrate loading is helpful for moderately intense physical activity to maintain fitness.

Which of the following individuals does NOT need to have a medical evaluation before beginning an exercise regimen?

Dinitra, a healthy, active 35-year-old-woman

Hydrochloric acid converts the inactive pepsinogen into its active form pepsin.

True

Individuals with a body mass index less than 18.5 kg/m2 are classified as ________.

underweight

Carbohydrate loading maximizes the amount of ________ stored in skeletal muscles.

glycogen

Marasmus is a serious condition resulting from inadequate intakes of protein and energy.

True

The electrically charged particle that assists in maintaining the body's fluid balance is called a/n ________.

electrolyte

A ________ fatty acid contains one double bond between two carbon atoms along the chain.

monounsaturated

The best way to treat sports anemia is with iron supplements.

False

The longer the fatty acid chain, the more ATP can be generated from breakdown.

True

Basal metabolism, the energy expended to maintain the body's resting functions, accounts for the majority of our total energy output each day.

True

Because minerals and vitamins have no energy value, they can be disregarded when calculating a day's total energy intake.

True

In type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease may destroy the ________.

insulin producing cells of the pancreas

Egg whites stiffen when they are whipped. The change that occurs in the protein is called ________

denaturation

The process through which mRNA copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the ribosome is called ________

transcription

At rest, the body's fuel source is primarily

fat

Physical activity not related to a person's occupation is defined as ________

leisure-time physical activity

What is meant by the overload principle?

improving fitness by placing extra physical demand on the body

Studies show that the use of fat replacers will reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and obesity.

False

The ________ load of a food is determined by the grams of carbohydrate it contains multiplied by its glycemic index.

glycemic

Hypoglycemia is seen ONLY in people with type 1 diabetes.

False

An apple-shaped fat pattern increases a person's risk for ________ disease.

heart

A body weight that exceeds 100% of the normal standard for a given height is called ________

morbid obesity

All of the following would be good advice for someone who is trying to gain weight EXCEPT

not exercising

Which of the following enzymes is found in the mouth?

salivary amylase

The term complex carbohydrates refers to

polysaccharides

Which of the following fatty acids is generally solid at room temperature?

saturated

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the process of hydrogenation?

hydrogenation creates a "heart-healthy" product

Chemical bonds in which the amine group of one amino acid binds to the acid group of another amino acid are ________ bonds.

peptide

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the metabolic syndrome?

osteoporosis

The ________ -to-hip ratio is useful to assess one's fat distribution pattern and future chronic disease risk.

waist

All of the following are major classes of dietary lipids EXCEPT

glycogens

The process of adding hydrogen to an unsaturated fatty acid and creating a more solid fat is called ________

hydrogenation

The recommended intake of ________ fat is less than 7-10 percent of total energy.

saturated

Due to the high cost, physical education programs are no longer mandated in schools throughout the United States.

False

Which of the following are substances in plant foods that are not absorbed by the body?

dietary fiber

Which of the following is associated with the development of ketosis?

a diet that contains insufficient carbohydrates

What is the cause of sports anemia?

increased plasma volume due to training

The top of the Physical Activity Pyramid emphasizes activities that ________

we should do less of, such as watch TV

An acid-base imbalance can result in ________

coma and death

In what structure of the mammalian cell are proteins synthesized?

ribosomes

Saturated fatty acids can occur in either a cis or trans shape.

false

A/n ________ food is one in which nutrients are added that did not originally exist in that food.

fortified

The body mass index is a measurement used to determine a person's body composition.

False

Leptin is a hormone produced by ________ cells.

adipose

Amino acids are the primary fuel source utilized in both anaerobic and aerobic exercise.

False

Where in the body are the majority of triglycerides stored for future energy needs?

adipose tissue

Medium chain fatty acids are ________ carbon atoms in length.

6-12

Diabetes is a condition in which the body does NOT regulate ________ properly.

glucose

Serotonin and cholecystokinin increase satiety in humans.

True

The ________ effect of food refers to the energy expended to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store the nutrients we eat.

thermic

Petra is a long distance track athlete who would like to optimize her glycogen stores. If she weighs 132 pounds, how many grams of carbohydrate should she consume to achieve this goal?

360-600

Due to the fermentation process alcoholic beverages are rich sources of dietary maltose.

False

A technique employed by some endurance athletes to increase their storage of muscle glycogen is

carbohydrate loading

Two amino acids are joined together by a peptide bond to form a dipeptide. What is the by-product of this process?

water

Which of the following proteins are fundamental to the immune system?

antibodies

Women are advised to avoid all fish products during pregnancy.

False

In the stomach, HCl converts the inactive enzyme ________ into its active form pepsin to facilitate the breakdown of proteins.

pepsinogen

The process in which a protein loses its shape and function when exposed to acids, heat, and heavy metals is ________.

denaturation

Lipids with a glycerol backbone and two fatty acids with a phosphate group are ________.

phospholipid

Placing an extra physical demand on the body to improve the fitness level is called the ________ principle.

overload

In which of the following types of exercise would CP (creatine phosphate) be an important source of energy?

sprinting in the 100-meter race

In physical activity lasting less than 1 hour, the most appropriate fluid replacement is ________

plain water

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