GEOG 1111 Test 1 Answers

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Review

The plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun is called:
a.) a great circle
b.) aphelion
c.) perihelion
d.) the plane of the ecliptic

d.) the plane of the ecliptic

What is the name of the location on the surface of Earth that receives insolation when the Sun is directly overhead? (When this occurs, the Sun's rays are perpendicular to this surface.)
a.) North Polar Point
b.) zenith
c.) subsolar point
d.) solar point

c.) subsolar point

Earth's diameter is
a.) about 10,000km (6,000mi)
b.) about 50,000km (30,000mi)
c.) about 40,000km (24,000mi)
d.) about 20,000km (12,000mi)

c.) about 40,000km (24,000mi)

What is the name for solar energy that is intercepted by Earth?
a.) advection
b.) albedo
c.) insolation
d.) transmission energy

c.) insolation

"Geography" literally means
a.) map making
b.) the study of rocks
c.) to write (about) Earth
d.) place memorization

c.) to write (about) Earth

Light travels at a speed of approximately
a.) 300,000km/h
b.) 80,500km/h
c.) 1,000,000km/s
d.) 300,000km/s

d.) 300,000km/s

Which of the following best describes the field of physical geography?
a.) the study of weather
b.) the mapping of rocks
c.) understanding soil development
d.) understanding how earth's processes interact to produce the phenomena observed in nature

d.) understanding how earth's processes interact to produce the phenomena observed in nature

The most extreme northern and Southern parallels to experience perpendicular rays of the Sun at local noon are located at
a.) 45 north & south
b.) 90 north & south
c.) 66.5 north & south
d.) 23.5 north & south

d.) 23.5 north & south

Which of the following is true of earth's orbit around the sun?
a.) it takes approximately the same time for Earth to orbit the Sun as it does for the rest of the planets in the solar system
b.) it is elliptical
c.) the orbit does not vary over millions of years
d.) it is perfectly circular

b.) it is elliptical

The dominant wavelength emitted by Earth is
a.) xray radiation
b.)infrared
c.)visible light
d.)gamma radiation

b.)infrared

Which of the following has the highest albedo?
a.)asphalt
b.)forests
c.)fresh snow
d.)dry, light sandy soils

c.)fresh snow

The capacity to change the motion of, or to do work on, matter is the definition of
a.)acceleration
b.)thermodynamics
c.)plasma
d.)energy
e.)system

d.)energy

Which of the following is false regarding sulfur dioxide (SO2)
a.)it is colorless
b.)it is odorless
c.)it is associated with coal-fired power plants and heavy industry
d.)it forms sulfuric acid in the presence of water vapor

b.)it is odorless

An angular distance measured east or west of a prime meridian from the center of earth is termed
a.)latitude
b.)Greenwich distance
c.)zenith
d.)longitude

d.)longitude

Three criteria used for classification of the atmosphere explained in the text are
a.) structure, origin temperature
b.)composition, temperature, function
c.)structure, origin, evolution
d.)composition, origin, evolution

b.)composition, temperature, function

Based on function, the atmosphere has
a.) two functional areas that absorb radiation from the sun
b.)five regions beginning with the outermost thermosphere
c.)the troposphere and the stratosphere
d.)one continuous region

a.) two functional areas that absorb radiation from the sun

Evaporation
a.)affects the temperature of land surfaces and water bodies the same amount
b.)tends to lower temperatures more over water bodies than over land
c.)tends to increase increase the temperature over water
d.)affects land more than ocean surfaces
e.)tends to increase temperatures over land.

b.)tends to lower temperatures more over water bodies than over land

Which two gases are primarily responsible for the greenhouse effect because of their ability to absorb infraed energy?
a.)oxygen and hydrogen
b.)nitrogen and oxygen
c.)ozone and dust
d.)water vapor and carbon dioxide

d.)water vapor and carbon dioxide

Which of the following explains why the sky is blue?
a.)Large molecules scatter small wavelengths more than large wavelengths
b.)Small molecules scatter long wavelengths of light more than short wavelengths
c.)Small molecules scatter the same amount of light as large molecules
d.)Small molecules scatter short wavelengths of light more than long wavelengths

d.)Small molecules scatter short wavelengths of light more than long wavelengths

The lower the pH of a liquid
a.)the more neutral it is
b.)the more basic (alkaline) it is
c.)the more acidic it is
d.)none of the above—pH is not a measure of acidity; it is a measure of chemical reactivity

c.)the more acidic it is

When water evaporates, the energy that was used to evaporate the water
a.)is transferred to the air by advection when the water evaporates
b.)in conducted into the underlying layer of water
c.)is stored as sensible heat in the evaporated water
d.)is stored as latent heat in the evaporated water

d.)is stored as latent heat in the evaporated water

Temperature inversions occur
a.)When there is good air drainage and ventilation of the surface air
b.)When surface temperatures are higher than overlying layers of air
c.)during episodes of reduced air pollution
d.)when surface temperatures are lower than warmer overlying air

d.)when surface temperatures are lower than warmer overlying air

The reflective quality of a surface is known as its
a.)conduction
b.)albedo
c.)scattering
d.)absorption

b.)albedo

Carbon monoxide is potentially dangerous because it
a.)replaces oxygen on red blood cells
b.)causes birth defects
c.)causes genetic mutations
d.)causes cancer

a.)replaces oxygen on red blood cells

Which typeof map scale would be appropriate to use if the map were to be enlarge by photocopying?
a.)representative fraction
b.)written
c.)graphic
d.)none of the above

c.)graphic

On June 21st, the Sun's declination is at
a.)the Tropic of Cancer
b.)Rio den Janeiro, Brazil and Alice Springs, Australia
c.)the tropic of capricorn
d.)the equator

a.)the Tropic of Cancer

As reported by the National Weather Service the heat index
a.)gives you an indication of the effect of wind on the skin
b.)is generally reported during critical weather months
c.)combines air pressure and temperature in a comfort index
d.)relates temperature and relative humidity

d.)relates temperature and relative humidity

which of the following would experience the least continentality?
a.)200 km inland from the Gulf of Mexico
b.)north central Asia
c.)a tropical island
d.)central Nevada

c.)a tropical island

-273C (-459.4F) is
a.)an average boiling temperature
b.)the same as 273 kelvin
c.)0 absolute temperature
d.)not possible on any scale

c.)0 absolute temperature

6.4C/100m (3.5F/1000ft) refers to
a.)the normal lapse rate
b.)a latitudinal lapse rate
c.)a measure of air pressure
d.)an environmental lapse rate

a.)the normal lapse rate

Which of the following is true regarding the depletion of ozone in the ozonosphere?
a.)It results from chemical reactions with chlorine derived from CFCs
b.)it results from the burning of fossil fuels
c.)the depletion is restricted to the arctic and antarctic regions
d.)the notion that ozone is being depleted as a result of human activity has little scientific evidence to support it

a.)It results from chemical reactions with chlorine derived from CFCs

The diameter of Earth is largest when measured around the
a.)subtropics
b.)poles
c.)equator
d.)prime meridian

c.)equator

Conduction refers to
a.)the behavior of something
b.)strong vertical movement of air in the atmosphere
c.)the molecule-to-molecule transfer of heat energy
d.)strong horizontal movement of air in the atmosphere

c.)the molecule-to-molecule transfer of heat energy

The effect of wind and temperature on the human skin is called the
a.)heat index
b.)apparent temperature index
c.)sensible heat measurement
d.)wind chill factor

d.)wind chill factor

The equinox
a.) is when the subsolar point is at one of the tropics
b.)is the longest day of the year at any given place
c.)has 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night for all locations
d.)occurs four times during the year

c.)has 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night for all locations

Based on composition, the atmosphere is divided into
a.)2 functional areas that absorb radiation from the sun
b.)the troposphere and the stratosphere
c.)one continuous region
d.)two broad classifications: homosphere and heterosphere

d.)two broad classifications: homosphere and heterosphere

If a system responds to a change in input by moving further away from its equilibrium condition, what type of feedback has occurred?
a.)positive
b.)neutral
c.)negative
d.)Not enough information is given to indicate what type of feedback has occurred

a.)positive

Earth's average overall albedo is
a.)31%
b.)51%
c.)69%
d.)unknown

a.)31%

The term "net radiation" refers to
a.)radiation emitted by satellite
b.)the total amount of energy received by Earth
c.)the difference in amount of incoming and outgoing radiation
d.)the total amount

c.)the difference in amount of incoming and outgoing radiation

The sun produces which of the following
a.)mainly visible light and infrared
b.)mainly ultraviolet and xrays
c.)only radiant energy that is beneficial
d.)only solar wind

a.)mainly visible light and infrared

Remote sensing is
a.)the monitoring of a distant object without physical contact
b.)a subjective determination of temperature
c.)an earthbound technique not used in modern satellites
d.)based on the principle that surfaces must be physically handled and directly measured for study

a.)the monitoring of a distant object without physical contact

The single most important control temperature
a.)latitude
b.)evaporation
c.)distribution of land and water
d.)altitude

a.)latitude

Earth's main energy inputs are
a.)near infrared and far infrared (longwave radiation)
b.)longwave radiation and ultraviolet light
c.)ultraviolet, violet, and near infrared radiation
d.)gamma rays, xrays, and ultraviolet radiation

d.)gamma rays, xrays, and ultraviolet radiation

Sources of natural variable gases and materials include all of the following except
a.)industrial activity
b.)volcanoes
c.)plants and decaying plants
d.)forest fires

a.)industrial activity

Temperatures decrease with increasing altitude in what two atmospheric layers?
a.)troposphere and stratosphere
b.)stratosphere and thermosphere
c.)stratosphere and mesosphere
d.)troposphere and mesosphere
e.)None of the above-temperature decreases with increasing altitude in all layers of the atmosphere

d.)troposphere and mesosphere

The Gulf Stream
a.)moves southward and moderates temperatures in eastern South America
b.)creates a warming effect Japan and Aleutians
c.)moves northward in the western Atlantic, moderating temperatures in Iceland
d.)Moves equatorward, warming the California coast

c.)moves northward in the western Atlantic, moderating temperatures in Iceland

The basis for defining the length of a day is the fact that
a.)Earth moves through 365.25 days a year in its orbit about the Sun in its orbit around the Sun
b.)Earth rotates on its axis in 24; i.e., it rotates 15 degrees of longitude
c.)Earth rotates east to west
d.)Earth does not rotate; rather, it revolves

b.)Earth rotates on its axis in 24; i.e., it rotates 15 degrees of longitude

What two pollutants react with water to produce acid rain
a.)Sulfur oxides and ozone
b.)sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides
c.)sulfur oxides and PAN
d.)Nitrogen oxides and ozone

b.)sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides

If you wanted a map with a lot of detail of a small area you would want a
a.)an intermediate scale
b.)a small scale
c.)a large scale map
d.)a world globe

c.)a large scale map

An isoline that connects all points of the same temperature on a map is called
a.)the mean temperature isoline
b.)the thermal equator
c.)an isobar
d.)minx/max line
e.)an isotherm

e.)an isotherm

As a result of the characteristics of water, cities located near a cost should experience a temperature range that is _____ those of cities located in the interior at the same latitude
a.)smaller than
b.)the same as
c.)larger than

a.)smaller than

Which of the following describes the propert of true shape on a map?
a.)equivalence
b.)equidistance
c.)proximity
d.)conformality

d.)conformality

The reaction of automobile exhaust and ultraviolet light
a.)produces photochemical smog
b.)produces industrial smog
c.)forms smoke and fog
d.)is affecting the stratospheric ozone concentration

a.)produces photochemical smog

A non-rechargeable battery can best be described as a/an _____ energy system and a/an ______ material system
a.)open;open
b.)closed;open
c.)open;closed
d.)closed;closed

d.)closed;closed

Which of the following sequences is arranged in order from shorter wavelength to longer wavelength?
a.)radio waves, light, heat, xrays
b.)xrays, UV, visible, infrared
c.)gamma rays, microwaves, visible, xrays
d.)infrared, visible, UV, xrays

b.)xrays, UV, visible, infrared

Net radiation (NET R) refers to
a.)the balance of all radiation incoming and outgoing at Earth's surface
b.)the amount of insolation coming into the surface
c.)the net energy expended for ground heating and cooling
d.)the amount of insolation not absorbed at the surface

a.)the balance of all radiation incoming and outgoing at Earth's surface

A byproduct of photosynthesis is
a.)oxygen
b.)xenon
c.)nitrogen
d.)argon

a.)oxygen

Which of the following is true regarding acid deposition?
a.)Acid precipitation is precipitation that measures more than 7 on a pH scale
b.)Acids have been causally linked to fish kills in the NE US
c.)No lakes or streams have been damaged by acid precipitation
d.)Soil processes generally are not affected by acid precipitation

b.)Acids have been causally linked to fish kills in the NE US

With respect to air, water, and material resources, which of the following is true?
a.)A leaf is an open system of air, but closed in terms of material resources
b.)A leaf is a closed system
c.)A leaf is an open system
d.)A leaf is an open system in terms of water, but closed in terms of energy resources

c.)A leaf is an open system

If the temperature at the surface of the Earth (at sea level) is 100F, what is the temperature at 2000 feet if the normal lapse rate is 3.5F/1000ft?
a.)107F
b.)103.5F
c.)96.5F
d.)93F

d.)93F

The relationship between the insolation curve and the air temperature curve on a graph of daily surface energy
a.)coincide at noon
b.)shows little or no relationship between the two variables
c.)shows that peak temperatures occur near noon, whereas peak insolation receipt is at 3 or 4
d.)exhibits a lag of several hours between the plotted lines

d.)exhibits a lag of several hours between the plotted lines

The annual temperature range map in your text shows that the
a.)Greatest ranges occur over the continental masses in the southern hemisphere
b.)greatest ranges occur in the subtropics over the oceans
c.)greatest ranges occur in east central siberia in russia
d.)lowest ranges occur over continental interiors in the Northern Hemisphere

c.)greatest ranges occur in east central siberia in russia

The highest temperatures in the atmosphere occur in the ___ because ____
a.)mesosphere, solar radiation
b.)thermosphere, carbon dioxide
c.)stratosphere, methane
d.)troposphere, infrared
e.)thermosphere,solar radiation

e.)thermosphere,solar radiation

The tropic of cancer refers to
a.)the parallel that is the farthest northern location for the subsolar point during the year
b.)0 latitude when the sun crosses the equator
c.)the parallel that occurs at 23.5 south latitude
d.)the location of the subsolar point on Sept 22

a.)the parallel that is the farthest northern location for the subsolar point during the year

Which of the following is true regarding locations at high elevations?
a.)The density of air increases with increasing elevation
b.)Higher elevations experience higher temperatures during the day because they are closer to the Sun
c.)Higher elevations experience lower average temperatures during both day and night
d.)Temperature at night, and in the shadows, are greater at higher elevations

c.)Higher elevations experience lower average temperatures during both day and night

Based on information discussed previously in the course, you know that average temperatures in the troposphere ___ with increasing elevation because the atmosphere is heated ___
a.)decrease; from the bottom-up by reflected insolation
b.)increase; from the top-down by energy emitted from the stratosphere
c.)decrease; from the bottom-up by terrestrial infrared energy
d.)increase; from the top-down by insolation

c.)decrease; from the bottom-up by terrestrial infrared energy

The temperature on a cloudy night is likely to be ___ the temperature on a clear night—all other factors being equal.
a.)warmer than
b.)the same as
c.)colder than

a.)warmer than

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