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diffusion of responsibility

reduction in sense of responsibility often felt by individuals in a group; may be responsible for the bystander effect

social cognition

the processes by which people come to understand others

dispositional factors

Personal factors of the individual being the main explanation for their behaviour

situational factors

environmental stimuli that affect a person's behavior.

self-fulfilling prophecy

an expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true.

Social Group

people sharing some social relation

Bystander intervention

the act of helping strangers in an emergency situation

actor-observer bias

tendency to attribute behavior of others to dispositional factors and our own behavior to situational ones in a comparison

out group homogeneity

tendency to view all individuals outside our group as highly similar

contact theory

idea that prejudice can be reduced by increasing contact with those that are different

jigsaw classroom

A classroom setting designed to reduce prejudice and raise the self-esteem of children by placing them in small, desegregated groups and making each child dependent on the other children in the group to learn the course material and do well in the class

compliance

acting according to certain accepted standards

elaboration likelihood model

Theory suggesting that there are two routes to attitude change: the central route, which focuses on thoughtful consideration of an argument for change, and the peripheral route, which focuses on less careful, more emotional, and even superficial evaluation.

central route of persuasion

the speaker uses facts, figures, and other information to enable listeners to carefully process information and think about their opinions; attitudes changed tend to be more stable

peripheral route of persuasion

superficial factors (supermodels and celebrities) used as distractors, leading to less stable change in attitudes.

instrumental aggression

Aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain

hostile aggression

Aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain

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