American Apparel and Footwear Association
: a technological system used in the process of transforming materials (fiber, yarn, and fabric) from one form into another (e.g. a finished product such as a blouse). The value chain goes from low value to high value through each successive process, ending with the finished product.
cutting, sewing, and finishing
Standard Guide for Care Symbols for Care Instructions on Textile Products may be used on care labels or care instructions in lieu of terms so long as the symbols fulfill the requirements of this regulation.
an adjective describing clothing that is made to order.
Benefits of becoming a proficient sewer
- Provide specs to a factory or vendor
- Ability to sew up a prototype of a garment you dreamed up or designed on the "fly"
- Help out w/ last minute, emergency repairs and/or wardrobe malfunctions during a photoshoot or fashion show
grainlines that do not run parallel to the warp or filling yarns.
bias runs at a 45˚ angle from the intersection of straight and cross grains
style of pants, gathered at the ankle and worn under a skirt or dress. Popularized by women's rights activist Amelia Bloomer in the mid 19th century.
a reversed inverted pleat.
worked on the overlapping part of a garment. Women's garments usually button RIGHT over LEFT.
Horizontal b.h. are . . .
most common in garment construction.
Vertical b.h. are worked on . . .
Three main types of b.h. are . . .
straight, bound, and slot.
When stitching b.h.,
sew the least prominent b.h. first and work toward the most prominent.
narrow tubular pleats formed by carefully drawing up multiple rows of hand stitches, used in clerical and academic robes.
traditional method to elasticize an edge: create a casing; then thread elastic, drawstring, or tie through.
horizontal rows of stitches or loops in the crosswise direction of a knit fabric.
: Consumer Product Safety Commission: US government entity that deals with monitoring rules and regulations for consumable goods and issuing product recalls
runs in filling direction for wovens and courses direction for knits; is perpendicular to selvage.
element in a garment used to control fullness and shape the garment to the body. Provide most tailored look of 3 main methods used to control fullness.
All darts are classified as either . . .
vertical or horizontal.
Dart excess on vertical darts is . . .
pressed toward the CF or CB.
Dart excess on horizontal darts is . . .
term used to describe the weight of a yarn.
when garment extends below waist down to hip area,
waist darts . . .
have 2 points and are also known as fish-eye darts.
Drawstrings, lacing, and ties
elements used to cinch in areas of a garment to aid in fitting or closure. Made of cord, braid, ribbon, leather strip, or fabric tubing (spaghetti).
method used in industry to mark dart points and pocket positioning on cut pieces.
Multiple rows of parallel stitching with elastic cord or thread that control fullness.
small circular hole in garments and footwear that enables a drawstring or tie to be pulled through.
fiber contents listed on care labels have a (+/-) 3% tolerance to allow for variations in manufacturing.
an important issue in the sewn products industry, especially in the areas of children's sleepwear, mattresses, and upholstered furniture
Flatbed knitting machine
produce full-fashioned garments (e.g. sweaters).
term used to describe the underlay portion of a trouser fly. Protects the wearer while zipper is opened and closed and also provides comfort.
Federal Trade Commision: US Government entity responsible for fiber content and country of origin rules and regulations for sewn products.
number of wales per inch in a knitted fabric. Also used to describe the fineness of a knit; the number of needles/inch in a machine knit fabric; and the size of the stitch.
Three basic directions for woven and knitted fabrics: straight, cross-grain, or bias; incorporated into pattern pieces. Affects overall fit and appearance of garment. Fabric's yarns determine if cut pieces are on-grain or off-grain.
Industrial sewing machines
generally faster, smoother, and more specialized than home sewing machines.
consists of two folds that face each other.
Knife or side pleats
folds of fabric that all lie in the same direction.
fabrics or garments constructed by the process of interlocking loops of yarn or other materials. Stitches formed by needles. Structure determined by direction in which loops are formed. Offer more stretchability not found in wovens due to fabric structure. Stretch varies w/ direction and complexity of loop formation, gauge, and weight of yarn. Stretch can be in either the course or wale direction, or both (2-way stretch).
produce fabric that is either tubular or flat. Width of fabric varies w/ machine type and specs.
primary function is to inform consumers about the product. Current law requires that clothing and home textiles contain information regarding fiber content, country of origin, and care instructions. Labels must be attached so they are seen or easily found when shopping for the product. If the product is packaged, displayed, or folded so the label is not visible, care information must also appear on the outside of the package or on a hang-tag
Ribbon, cord, braid, or tubing in which 2 free ends are pulled alternately through opposing
a special label required for filled bedding, decorative pillows, mattresses, and furniture sold in the US. The label identifies the type of material used to fill the product, e.g. "All New Material".
specialized machine used to join pre-shaped knitted garment pieces with an extensible chain stitch seam.
Made in USA
sewn product may only be labeled as this if ALL units were made completely in the USA only of materials also made in the USA.
: home sewers can use chalk, markers, tracing wheel and tracing paper, tailor's tacks and notches.
small ¼" deep slit or other shape ("v" or "t" ) cut into fabric to mark dart legs and other matching points to aid in assembly.
an ordered bulletin listing all the assembly steps required to manufacture a sewn product. Includes stitch and seam classes and SAM's needed to complete each operation.
Production-business systems: used to satisfy long term goal of reducing the amount of input (time and money) needed to produce a certain quantity of output. Include design, maintenance, inventory, safety, transport, and QC.
The take-up of excess fabric at the edge of a garment by way of doubling the fabric ply upon itself, producing a fold and forming an underlay of ¾" to 2".
Product Design Architecture
: the 4 P's: Parts, Panels, Pieces, Products
transforming organizational resources into products.
industry term for the amount of product (yardage) contained on a single roll or bolt.
Registration Number: a 6 digit number assigned to a manufacturer or marketer to aid consumers in identifying the company responsible for manufacturing the product.
: Restricted Substances List. Published by AAFA, this list provides information on regulations and laws that restrict or ban certain chemicals and substances in home textiles, apparel, and footwear products around the world.
Fullness gathered to correspond to parallel gathered seams. Soft folds created vertically or horizontally; can take the form of a fabric strip or ribbon
Standard Allowed Minutes. A way to express labor content, the time in minutes required to perform a specific operation. Used to calculate a sewing machine operators' piece rate and used to help cost sewn products.
an adjective describing of or relating to tailoring, clothes, or style of dress.
: also known as gathering
formed by designers using molding, shaping, and releasing fabric to conform to body contours for functional or decorative purposes.
dart w/ one wide open-end and one point that ends near the body bulge (e.g. bust or hip).
Multiple rows (3 or more) of parallel shirring or gathering that forms a decorative design detail on garment face. A liner is attached on underneath side to reinforce and provide comfort. This type of shirring is fixed, and lacks give or stretch. Commonly used in childrenswear.
runs in warp direction for wovens and wale direction for knits. Runs parallel to selvage. Most stable direction due to warp yarns being stronger than weft or filling yarns. Direction that most garments are cut on to provide crisp appearance.
: A method to assess market potential by identifying Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats.
the application of science or a scientific method, or material used to achieve commercial or industrial goals.
Total Quality Management
fly-front zipper application where one side of the zipper tape is sewn to a facing and the other side is stitched to an underlay to completely hide the zipper teeth.
Wales and courses
comparable to warp and filling in woven fabrics
vertical columns of stitches that run in lengthwise direction of fabric
: series of yarns that form wales in lengthwise direction of fabric. Will not ravel or run.
a single continuous yarn that passes horizontally to needles to form courses or rows across fabric; prone to run.
Whole garment knitting
specialized flatbed knitting machines that produce a complete garment, eliminating the need for cutting, sewing, and linking
Wool Products Labeling Act
- Fold fabric w/ FST w/ foldline at center of open end and running through dart point
- Pin through markings for dart legs through both fabric layers
- Begin stitching (ASTM 301) at open end and backstitch at beginning of legs.
- Continue to sew down the lines to the dart point, ending at fold.
GOOD: continue to sew beyond end of dart, allow thread ends to intertwine, trim 1" away. Limits life of dart.
BETTER: turn fabric so foldline is directly behind needle, backstitch along fold 5 or 6 stitches, trim threads
BEST: pull fabric out from presser foot, trim thread tails to 6", tie knot around pin inserted at point, trim threads leaving ½" tail.