Which function of management involves the identification of organizational goals and strategies and the appropriate organizational resources required to achieve them?
The Mainstream managerial perspective is reflected in which of the following values?
What scholar argued that the "invisible hand" guides apparently chaotic individualism toward the collective good?
The idea that the host country cultures and values are more important to incorporate than the parent country cultures and values could best be described as ______?
The United States would be considered to have a ____________ orientation culture.
Henry Mintzberg's view of management includes all but which of the following roles?
(Does include Interpersonal
Decisional and Informational)
When managers discuss which goals an organization should pursue they are addressing which issue?
Which ethical perspective can best be described as low-materialist but high-individualist in its focus on protecting the liberties of individuals?
Countries who belong to the European Union (EU) utilize __________ currencies.
When a professor gives students quizzes and assignments to assess their learning, which of the managerial functions is best being exhibited?
The Industrial Revolution resulted in which of the following changes?
Increased specialization of jobs
______________ occurs when products or services from one country are traded (rather than bought and sold for currency) for products or services from another country.
Which of the following statements about maquiladora factories is TRUE?
The workers' minimum wage increases each year relative to the cost of living
The factories are located in the US but employ Mexican immigrants
The factories are illegal under NAFTA
-->NONE OF THEM ARE TRUE
As illustrated in the Starbucks video shown in class, a systematic analysis of the effect that an organization is having on its stakeholders and society as a whole is called ______________?
Which term best describes the maximization of outputs combined with the minimization of inputs?
Frederick Taylor's philosophy of ____________ is reflected in his famous studies of redesigning shovels to increase productivity at a steel plant.
Which form of internationalization requires the lowest level of commitment and engagement?
Which of the following is TRUE of the micro-financing movement?
Clients are typically small-time entrepreneurs without access to traditional banking and loans
Research on the "Hawthorne Effect" best fits into which era of management?
The "Human" Era (1930-1950)
This occurs when two or more systems are more successful working together than they are working independently.
___________ managers are more likely than ________ managers to trust employees to do their jobs even when they are not being closely supervised.
Theory Y; Theory X
This is the idea that all decisions are limited by incomplete information and limited cognitive resources available when making decisions.
Bounded rationality (Herbert Simon)
Of the following countries, which ranks lowest in terms of materialism and individualism?
The informal shared perceptions of what comprises morally appropriate practices and procedures in an organization is known as ______________ ?
This type of control is evident when rules, regulations, policies and standard operating procedures are used to control the behavior of organizational members.
Which of the following is TRUE of the Multistream approach to management?
It places greater emphasis on productivity and profitability than Mainstream management
Multistream values have been decreasing in popularity in recent years
It emphasizes the individual over groups and community
--> NONE OF THE ABOVE ARE TRUE
This organization was created in 1995 to encourage free trade and open markets between countries. Today over 150 countries are members of this organization.
What is the term for organizational insiders who identify and report unethical behavior within the organization?
What percent of corporations have a formal code of ethics?
_____________ managers are equally likely to value organization-specific responsibility and corporate-social responsibility.
Which is an accurate statement regarding the law and ethics?
The law is not an adequate guide to what is ethical.
A society that stresses "living for the moment" is said to have:
The degree to which people in a society accept the idea that inequalities in the well being of its citizens are due to differences in people's intellectual capabilities in known as:
The utilitarian rule states that an ethical decision:
Produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Japan tends to be _____ oriented; Sweden tends to be ____ -oriented.
A phone call to a government official by an employee of the Enron Corporation disclosed the deception and dishonesty of the firm's accounting records. This employee played the role of a(n):
McDonald's developed a fat-fryer machine that reduced the amount of oil used to cook French fries by 30 percent over its current cookers. This is an example of an attempt to improve the organization's _________.
The justice rule states that an ethical decision:
distributes benefits and harms in a fair way.
The U.S. government imposes a 25 percent tax on the selling price of any four-wheel SUV that is brought into the U.S. by a foreign car manufacturer to be sold in the U.S. What type of tax does this action represent?
an import tariff
If a society values the group more than the individual and believes that people should be judged by the quality of their contribution to the group instead of their individual achievement, then the society is said to value:
Which of the following results due to differences in personalities, values, and attitudes?
Companies from the nation of Atlantis are more efficient in the production of certain types of apparel, while U.S. companies are more efficient in the production of certain types of computers. Which economic theory predicts that the production of these types of apparel would shift to Atlantis and the production of these types of computers would shift to the U.S.?
Which of the following is an example of a political and legal force in the environment that a company must consider in going global?
emphasis on environmental protection
emphasis on safety on the job
-->ALL OF THE ABOVE
According to the viewpoint of Managerial Capitalism, businesses can best meet their responsibility to society by:
creating wealth for their stockholders
Which of the following people would be MOST in favor of CSR?
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is by far the nation's largest philanthropic foundation, with assets of approximately $30 billion. While Adam Smith believed that self-interested pursuit of profit was wrong, and that benevolence was the highest virtue, Bill Gates has demonstrated CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) with his very real contribution to social responsibility in the world.
Managers can abuse their responsibilities in many ways including:
improper financial management
A & B
-->ALL OF THE ABOVE
What economic community was ratified in 1993 and went into effect January 1, 1994 to include the countries of Canada, U.S., and Mexico?
The flow of jobs, flow of money, and flow of knowledge all fall under which dimension of the international environment?
When a company and a foreign partner combine resources and capital to begin a new business, this is a _______________.
From the History of Management video shown in class, who had a classical viewpoint of management and defined the 4 principles of management - planning, leading, organizing, & controlling?
This famous study conducted by Elton Mayo & Fritz Roethlisberger studied whether increased lighting would increase productivity. The results marked a change in management theory. What is the name of this study?
The hawthorne effect
According to Douglas McGregor's research on Theory X and Theory Y managers, a Theory X manager is likely to _____________.
highly structure the jobs
incorporate many SOPs
-->ALL OF THE ABOVE
A(n) ________________ system view emphasizes an organization's larger environment and synergy between systems.
During the period of Controlling: The Values & Beliefs Era (1970-1990), certain practices or rules becoming valued in and of themselves even though they may no longer be useful for an organization is known as ____________.
From the video on History of Management and as discussed in class, what is Max Weber's iron cage?
It is the way of the institution, where we do not have choice anymore.
Planning emphasizes and reinforces ___________ thinking, whereas a Multistream approach employs ________ thinking.
Multistream decision making emphasizes more _________ and less _______________.
Which of the following is NOT something frequently mentioned in a mission statement?
Threats & weaknesses
Employees are, though)
When managers discuss how they will respond to possible future events that could disrupt existing plans, such as natural disaster or a major recession, they are developing what?
With results-based mainstream goals, it is important to
focus on specific outcomes, not on activities.
reward employees for achieving desired results.
have safeguards in place so that employees don't cheat.
make sure quality isn't ignored.
--> ALL OF THE ABOVE
Who is known for implementing stretch goals at GE?
Which goal is most consistent with Mainstream management values?
Maximizing productivity and profits
Entrepreneurs tend to have
high energy levels.
tolerance for ambiguity.
an internal locus of control.
an action orientation.
-->ALL OF THESE
An organizational vision statement
describes what an organization is striving toward.
Brett is the new CEO of a company and he is changing the planning process. The changes are as follows: decreasing its planning horizon to 7 years, increasing productivity by 2 percent, and increasing earnings per share by $1.50/share in the next 4 years. Previously the planning horizon was 10 years, productivity was not crucial to the company's goals, and EPS was not seen as a measure of success. What type of planning shift seems to be taking place at this organization?
Multistream to Mainstream
Harry Hamburger is a senior executive at McDonald's. He wants to increase the company's market share by 2 percent per year. What kind of goal is this?
A good mission statement identifies
what an organization does and whom it serves.
Mario Cart has specifically chosen to operate his firm from a Multistream perspective. Which of the following is most likely to be included in the firm's strategic goals?
Obtaining a sustainable return on investment
Mr. Hunnell is the manager of Nightcrawlers-R-Us. He has already developed the organization's overarching mission of providing his lakefront village with all of its angling needs. He has also set strategic goals and plans. What is the next step in his Mainstream approach to goal setting and planning?
Set tactical and operational goals and plans.
When East Carolina Tea Distributors states that "We strive toward continued growth in the North American tea market by providing the best-tasting, 100% natural tea products," the statement is representative of which level of goal setting?
An effective organizational vision has all of the following characteristics except
ease of accomplishment
Managers in biotechnology know that new drugs have a 10% chance of passing advanced clinical trials. This is an example of:
For Steve's new venture, he borrowed from family, friends, and his local credit union. He is using
Multistream entrepreneurship seeks to provide well-being for
-->ALL OF THESE
A member of a group challenges the decision toward which the group is leaning so that the group considers carefully all of the unacceptable possible outcomes of the alternative that the group is considering. This is known as:
An organization's accounting department decides to send out a bill to a new customer. What type of decision does this represent?
_________________ tend to alert people to the need for a decision.
Problems and opportunities
From the Panera Bread video shown in class, Panera is a high-growth company which has planned and controlled its growth. This video illustrated what concept(s)?
Panera's short-term objectives with tactical plans to achieve.
Panera's soliciting feedback from customers.
Panera's vision for how it competes in marketplace.
Panera setting strategic goals and plans.
-->ALL OF THE ABOVE
Research typically indicates that the _________ types of goals to set for managers are ____________ goals.
best; specific difficult
Based on March & Simon's Administrative Model, the last step in the managerial decision-making process is to:
learn from feedback
An important step for Joel as he embarks on a decision-making process is to
be aware of and identify the need for making a decision.
According to the ____________ approach to goal setting, as more key stakeholder groups participate in the development of a firm's mission and vision statements, there will be wider appreciation for the work of the organization.
___________ would be a programmed decision.
Test marketing a new flavored drink at Coca Cola
Increased _____________ in the early parts of the decision-making process increase(s) the likelihood of getting the decision implemented.
"Throwing more money after a bad decision" indicates __________ in decision making.
escalation of commitment
A manager's ability to make a decision based on past experience and "a gut feeling" is known as:
an intuitive decision
A manager considers a limited sample of the potential alternative solutions for a problem and selects one that is acceptable instead of attempting to select the optimum solution. This type of decision is called:
Entrepreneurship consists of
taking the initiative to pursue an identified opportunity by mobilizing resources.
The most important contributions made by entrepreneurial activities are in
making innovations and creating jobs.
The Internet enables small entrepreneurial businesses to compete in
the global market.
Bob's two personality traits as a Mainstream entrepreneur are _____________ and _____________.
high need for achievement; high level of self-confidence
Hudson is more likely to become entrepreneur if he is
feeling that he won't find a satisfying job.
Which of the following is not a reason that group decision-making is superior to individual decision-making?
For the Joe-to-Go video shown in class, it illustrated what concept(s)?
According to the four steps of the planning process, operational goals and plans consider which time horizon?
3 to 12 months (quarterly or annual)
In the Mainstream operational goal-setting process, SMART goals are
_______________ include(s) being in transition, being pushed away from the status quo, and being pulled into an entrepreneurial venture.
Eric Aimes is a manager of a small company and must make a very important decision. In these types of scenarios, Mr. Aimes does not consult with other managers or stakeholders. What kind of manager is he?
The strengths of and opportunities available to Mom's Kitchen Ltd., a new venture providing prepared meals for new mothers, should be evaluated against
its weaknesses and the threats it faces.
Which of the following statements best describes the purpose of a firm's contingency plan?
It sets out in advance how a company will respond to a crisis or unexpected event.
In the administrative model of decision making, when the number of possible alternatives to a decision is so large that the manager cannot possibly evaluate all of them before making a decision, ______________ will occur.
Which of the following statements about managerial decision-making is false?
Managers should wait for complete information before deciding.
Multistream entrepreneurship encompasses
-->ALL OF THE ABOVE
Multistream managers attempt to enhance the triple bottom line, which includes ____________ goals.
financial, social, & ecological
Organizational culture, team dynamics, and leadership styles are examples of ______________ knowledge.
__________________ is a key feature that is typically included in Multistream business venture plans.
Regarding the typical Mainstream approach to the four-step planning process,
top managers establish the purpose and aspirations of the organization in the "mission and vision" step.
Which of the following represent a type of standing plan that outlines specific steps that must be taken when performing certain tasks?
Standard Operating Procedures
In the goal-setting/plan-making process, who sets the mission and vision of the company if the firm operates from a Multistream perspective?
A wide collection of the firm's stakeholders
An organization that has been focusing on a target market located in the eastern part of the United States is attempting to decide whether to expand its sales to the West Coast of the United States. What type of decision is this?
A large publishing company contracts with a freelance writer for the task of copyediting a new manuscript instead of hiring a full-time copyeditor. This is an example of:
This type of manager has the right or authority to issue orders to other managers or employees. It creates superior-subordinate relationships.
All of the job applicants for a sales position are asked: "What would you do when a customer complains that it takes too long to receive service?" What type of interview is being used?
In the opening case, Brio Technology worked through its change process by ______________.
gaining widespread recognition of the need for change
getting employees involved in discussing change issues
developing and designing possible change processes
obtaining feedback about meeting
-->ALL OF THESE
The measure of an organization's value is not just the worth of its property, plant and equipment but also its, _____________, the productive potential of employee experience, knowledge, and actions.
When managers ask the same questions of each job applicant for a specific job, this is known as:
A structured interview
Most organizations today are using a ____________ structure so as to be more flexible and responsiveness in competitive environments.
A manager attempting to select a test for a job applicant that will be a good predictor of the applicant's performance on the job if hired should be primarily concerned with the ______ of the test.
Validity (measuring what it's suppose to)
The arrangement of jobs into categories reflecting their relative importance to the organization and its goals, level of skills required and other characteristics is called:
Pay structure (paid based on importance and skills)
Which company discussed in class is the largest privately help software company with less than a 5% annual turnover?
Which type of performance appraisal is harder to challenge for bias?
This refers to a person's legal right or power to take action, to make decisions, and to direct the work of others.
The component of an HRM system that focuses on helping employees to develop the skills and abilities that will enable them to perform their jobs successfully is:
Training & development
Ford Motor Co. tests applicants for assembly-line positions on their reading and mathematical abilities in order to determine if they have the mental abilities necessary to do these types of jobs. What type of screening procedure is being used?
When Kantos is on the assembly line, he performs a very specific task by hanging the necessary parts for a robotic arm to paint them. This is an example of _____________ job specialization.
The supervisor of a newly hired school bus driver rides with the new driver for the first week on the new job to be sure that the driver follows the correct route and the proper safety procedures. In which aspect of the HRM process is this supervisor involved?
The degree of _________________ in Mainstream organizing depends on how much decision-making authority the top managers retain among themselves.
Tina has _____________ authority to direct and control her subordinates, whereas Jonah has _____________ authority to provide technical support and advise his subordinates without being able to tell them what to do.
As the CEO, Seth chooses to delegate a significant amount of work to his top management team, which means the organization is probably quite ______________.
decentralized (because he doesn't do it, but allows those below him to)
Managers have to understand the change to be implemented and _____________ within their organizations.
how to do it
the change process
the different steps
-->ALL OF THESE
When Chrysler merged with Daimler, there was a need to move to a centralized hierarchy. This was a change in _______.
Regarding delegation in organizations, the most recent trend is a shift toward
wider spans of control.
Newly-hired programmers at Microsoft Corporation join small work teams so that experienced workers can serve as mentors to them while they are adjusting to their new job. This is an example of which component of the HRM process?
Training and development
Multistream managers prefer a ____________ structure over a functional structure.
The biggest cause of employee resistance to change is
lack of information about future events.
When managers attempt to estimate both the qualifications and the number of workers that their organization will need in the future, this is known as:
The term "departmentalization" is best defined as
how people and tasks are grouped together in the organization.
The advantages to external recruiting are gaining specialized knowledge and _______________.
fresh viewpoints and talent
Managers who are capable of handling change gain the trust of their employees mainly through
integrity and consistency.
One of the four fundamental issues in organizing is
harmonious work among members.
______________ are the key points that employees look for in their managers, especially during change management.
Trust and participation
The component of an HRM system that focuses on attempting to attract and to hire employees who have the abilities and experiences to help the organization to achieve its goals is known as:
Recruitment and selection
The product team structure is different than the matrix structure in two ways. First, there are no dual reporting relationships and two boss employees. Secondly, ____________ .
Functional employees are permanently assigned to cross-functional teams.
__________ managers display qualities that make employees more willing to commit to a change.
A forced distribution method used by GE and Sun Microsystems is also known as ____________.
Rank and yank
Employees are most likely to believe in themselves and their abilities when Multistream managers create an environment for
Experienced managers have found that outsourcing works best for tasks that are _______________, do not require closeness or familiarity with customers and/or customs and the culture of the company's home country, and do not require _______________.
Mainstream and Multistream change management approaches are designed to achieve the same thing:
positive change in the organization.
Why does HRM play a huge role in a firm's strategic success?
Retention of valuable employees
Prevents expensive image & legal issues
Hiring the best person for the job; Firm Fit
Sets companies apart from their competitors
-->ALL OF THE ABOVE
What is identifying the tasks, duties and responsibilities that make up a job and the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform the job?
______________ change happens when an organization redirects its strategic focus or reformulates its culture because of competitors' success.
A college recruiter collects more information about each job applicant when ___________ interviews are used so that he or she can make objective decisions based on _________ information from each applicant.
Global economies are having a drastic effect on manufacturing jobs in the United States, and this causes a great deal of employee resistance to change because of ____________.
uncertainty and ambiguity
The customer service department of Pier One uses _________ appraisals to provide input for progress reports and improvement suggestions for customer service training possibilities.
After a change has been implemented, managers have to "refreeze" the organization __________________.
in order to institutionalize the change process
At the engineering firm Green Forms Ltd., the employees report to a project manager and a functional manager, which means that the organizational structure is probably
If a manager has to get people on board for a major change, he or she should use _______________.
How does the Human Resource department conduct a job analysis?
-->ALL OF THE ABOVE
Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics of the Job Characteristics model by Oldham and Hackman?
task identity are)
Mainstream management understands the "unfreezing" step to mean ___________.
making sure that employees understand the need for the change
reducing employee resistance to change
creating a desire to change
crafting a shared vision of the change
-->ALL OF THESE
A key player in the actual implementation step of the change process is the ____________.
____________ are methods for collecting information for job analysis and design from subject matter experts.
Interviews and surveys
Job diaries and interviews
Observation and performance
None of these
-->ALL OF THESE
When Metlife Mexico, an insurance company, began a transformational change after three acquisitions in five years, employees felt ___________.
apprehensive, angry, and dependent on managers for direction
Highly centralized organizations tend to have
slow decision making.
a higher level of dictatorship.
-->ALL OF THESE
Floyd Corporation uses only one question on the applicant assessment to determine whether truck drivers know about weight regulations for five different truck models in the state of Michigan. This is an example of how selection _________ can be _____________.
Mainstream managers emphasize _______ in the change process
Content and proper implementation
In a transformational change of its culture, Ford Motor Company has changed from an atmosphere of ______ to a more participative style
command and control
In the opening case, Brio Technology worked through its change process by
All of these:
Gaining widespread recognition of the need for change
Getting employees involved in discussing change issues
Developing and designing possible change processes
Obtaining feedback about meetings
Feedback about the change process is important because
All of these:
Employees need an outlet for complaints
Employee opinions need to be heard in the process
Such information can be used to judge the change progress
Positive change in an organization results in guaranteed
None of these:
Positive change contributes to survival/growth, but can't guarantee anything
Any major modification in a business can be described as _________
Managers have to understand the change to implemented and _______ within their organization
All of these:
How to do it
The change process
The different steps
__________ change happens when an organization redirects its strategic focus or re-formulates its culture because of competitor's success
After many years of reacting to competitive forces, the autor firms tend to respond with _________ changes when in fact they are __________ changes
Microsoft Corporation found itself in a(an) __________ position after Apple released its iPod
The use of assembly lines for clothing, electronics, and automotive assembly is an example of ____________ across industries
The transformational and unplanned change at Grand Canyon University from non-profit school to profit-making enterprise probably caused ___________.
All of these:
Anger and uncertainty
A decrease in quality education
Changes in _________ are generally related to work flow, production processes, equipment, and IT systems.
When Chrysler merged with Daimler, there was a need to move to a centralized hierarchy. This was a change in __________.
__________ are always affected by change in organizations
_________ is (are) more participative in its change focus
In the mainstream approach to change, the first step requires managers to ___________ and ____________.
All of these:
Look for threats and opportunities; establish a sense of urgency
Monitor productivity and profits; present problems to employees
Categorize change options; decide which change should be addressed.
After a change has been implemented, managers have to "refreeze" the organization ______________
in order to institutionalize the change process (Kurt Lewin)
Mainstream management can rely on ____________ for identification of a change opportunity
All of these:
Formal information systems
Having a top-heavy decision process that slows down production is an example of _____________ that can be changed
an internal factor
External environmental factors such as rising fuel costs generally create __________ for organizations
Managers often remain ignorant of signals for needed changes because _________________.
Success means "everything is fine"
Mainstream management understands the "unfreezing" step to mean
All of these:
Making sure that employees understand the need for the change
Reducing employee resistance to change
Creating a desire to change
Crafting a shared vision of the change
If a manager has to get people on board for a major change, he or she should use _____________
If there is a severe crisis facing an organization, a manager should use ___________ to help prepare employees for change
(see table 13.1)
An opportunity-based approach to preparing organization members for change is to _____________
All of these:
Describe the benefits of the change
Use an inspirational appeal
Use exchange tactics
Short-term compliance can be caused by _________________.
Reactionary change measures and excluding employees from change initiatives
When Metlife Mexico, an insurance company, began a transformational change after three acquisitions in five years, employees felt __________________.
Apprehensive, angry, and dependent on managers for direction
People have to work through change processes ___________________.
In a sequential process
An employee's _________________ can be considered violated with organizational change.
When the automobile industry began to cut jobs and change union contracts, many employees felt _________________________.
A loss of personal identity
Global economies are having a drastic effect on manufacturing jobs in the United States, and this causes a great deal of employee resistance to change because of ____________________.
Uncertainty and ambiguity
The failure of the Daimler Chrysler merger was principally attributed to
Overly idealistic expectations and different structures
Thanks to __________________, HeathCare, Inc., an insurance company, met with relative success with its transformational change process after a merger
Clear and consistent information about the new company culture
A change agent
is a critical, visible part of the change
(someone who drives the change)
A key player in the actual implementation step of the change process is the ____________________.
A manager works toward employee commitment to the change implementation process. Influencing factors include employees'
confidence in themselves and managers
According to the text, managers who are capable of handling change gain the trust of their employees chiefly through
integrity and consistency
An organization's members will commit to a change process if they believe in themselves and their ability to work through the change process successfully. Managers can help by ___________________________.
providing adequate information and encouraging realistic expectations
Training for new KSAOs is an essential part of __________________________
providing employees with new skills
The IT change process at Target stores required managers to increase member commitment to change through ________________.
Managerial accountability in the workplace centers on ____________________.
Getting the required results.
If managers ____________, they can become isolated from informal knowledge networks during organizational change processes.
have poor work relationships
Getting to the point where organizational change becomes permanent and natural for employees requires
Changes in organization structures and systems
A new department structure continued to encounter problems with "refreezing," which may have been a result of
previous staffing structures that were not removed
Mainstream change models are associated with __________________.
Mangers in charge of the change process
(Multistream includes all stakeholders)
The Beer Model stresses that ______________ are ______________ change process
managers and employees; co-owners of the bottom-up
The Multistream change process focuses on how to ____________ to play key roles in _______________ step(s)
encourage both managers and employees; the first two basic
Servant leadership is consistent with the ____________ approach to change management because it encourages a(an) ____________ approach to change.
Multistream; organizational development
Multistream managers strive to __________________ employees during the "unfreezing" of the organization in order to ______________ a new vision
include; jointly develop
The change implementation step in the ________________ encourages _____________ for all employees
Multistream approach; competency training
Multistream managers focus on ________________ as new possibilities for change arise.
social opportunities for employees
The Multistream approach uses joint diagnosis to
discuss information and ideas about change options with all members of the organization
Open book management is an approach for _________________ information with employees
Multistream managers create a _______________ with employees during the second step of the change process through _______________ tactics.
shared vision; consultation
Multistream organizations continue to focus on ___________ even during change processes
All of these:
Rewards that come from someone else in recognition of good work are ________ rewards
Weldon Task has just successfully negotiated a new long-term sales agreement with a major client. The personal satisfaction Weldon has about his efforts is his _________ reward
The concept that a hierarchy of human needs could be used to explain motivation was developed by _______ ______
In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, the desire for love and acceptance would fall into the category of:
Maslow placed ________ needs at the highest level of his hierarchy.
Jackie had been very pleased with her part-time job at a local convenience store until a recent incident occurred. During Jackie's night shift, the store was burglarized. Although no one was hurt, Jackie now feels uneasy and fearful during her late night shift. She is so nervous and worried that she is having a hard time concentrating on her work and is thinking about quitting. Management needs need to be aware of JAckie's unmet _______ needs
_________ studied how the characteristics of the job itself affected worker motivation
Herzberg's research identified several ________ factors that did not necessarily motivate employees if they were increased, but could cause employees to become dissatisfied if they were missing or inadequate
Herzberg found that good pay:
Was a hygiene factor rather than a motivator.
________ used the terms Theory X and Theory Y to describe different attitudes managers had about employees
Theory __ managers see employees as being lazy and unwilling to accept responsibility.
_________ blends Japanese and American management practices into a hybrid approach which calls for long-term employment, collective decision making, and individual responsibility for the outcome of decisions.
Theory X managers are likely to believe that:
The average person dislikes work and will seek to avoid it when possible.
________ is based on the notion that setting ambitious but attainable goals will improve motivation and performance if the goals are accepted, accompanies by feedback, and facilitated by organizational conditions.
Goal-setting theory (Locke)
According to ____________ the amount of effort employees devote to a task depends are their expectations of the outcome.
M=E x I x V
Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence
According to expectancy theory, the amount of effort employees exert on a specific task depends on their:
Expectations of the outcome
Reprimands, pay reductions, and suspensions are all examples of:
The basic principle of equity theory is that employees try to:
Maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to people in similar positions.
Equity judgments are based on:
Lynn is in charge of a nursing shift at a hospital. She wants to improve the motivation and performance level of the nurses under her direction. According to expectancy theory, one element of an effective motivational strategy is to:
Determine what types of rewards are valued by the nurses.