Sociology Unit 2

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culture

all the shared products of human group

society

a group of interdependent people who have organized in such a way as to share a common culure and feeling of unity

material culture

physical objects that people create and use eg automobiles, books, buildings, etc.

nonmaterial culture

abstract human creations eg beliefs, family patterns, ideas, languages, etc.

formal sanctions

a reward of punishment given by a formal organization or regulartory agency

informal sanctions

a spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval given by an individual or group

socials movement

long-term conscious effort to promote or prevent social change

technology

the knowledge and tools that people use to manipulate their environment

language

the organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized system

values

shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desireable or undesirable

symbols

anything that stands for something else

social control

enforcing of norms through either internal or external means

diffusion

the process of spreading culture traits from one society to another

norms

shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations

folkways

norms that describe socially acceptable behavior but do not have great moral significance attached to them

laws

written rules of conduct enacted and enforced by the government

mores

norms that describe socially acceptable behavior and have great moral significance

culture trait

simplest level of culture - an individual tool, act or belief that is related to particular situation or need

culture complexes

cluster of interrelated culture traits

reformulation

the process of adapting borrowed cultural traits

culture pattern

combination of a number of culture complexes into an interrelated whole

cultural universals

features common to all cultures

ethnocentrism

tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior

cultural relativism

the belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards rather than by applying the standards of another culture

subculture

group that share values, norms, and behaviors that are not shared by the entire population

counterculture

group that rejects the major values, norms, and practices of the larger society and replaces them with a new set of culture patterns

ideology

system of beliefs or ideas that justifies the social, moral, religious, political, or economic interests through social movements

self-fulfillment

commitment to the full development of one's personality, talents and potential

narcissism

extreme self-centeredness

internalization

process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual's personality and the conditioning that individual to conform to society's expectations

sanctions

rewards or punishments used to enforce comformity to norms

positive sanctions

an action that rewards a particular kind of behavior

negative sanctions

a punishment or the threat of punishment used to enforce conformity

cultural lag

when some traits change rapidly, and the transformation of others may take considerable time

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