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____ is not a characteristic of life

decomposition

___ is the study of life

biology

anatomy is to __ as physiology is to __

structure function

the central principle of physiology is

homeostasis

what level of organization does a protein belong to?

chemical level

what level of organization is the smallest living level of organization?

cellular level

This is not a major tissue type

glandular tissue

complex to most simple level of organization

organism, system, organ, tissue, cell, molecule

which organ provides support, protection of soft tissue, mineral storage and blood formation?

skeletal

which organ system transports nutrients, metabolic waste, gases and defense cells?

cardiovascular

Elimination of excess water, salts and waste products are functions of the ___ system.

urinary

which organ removes carbon dioxide from the bloodstream?

respiratory

protection from environmental hazards is a function of the ___ system

integumentary

the maintenance of a constant internal environment in an organism is called

homeostasis

When body temperature rises, a center in the brain initiates physiological changes to decrease the body temperature. This is an example of ___

negative feedback

The integrating center for the negative feedback loop that regulates body temperature is the ___

brain

A cell or organ that responds to commands of the control center in negative feedback is termed an

effector

This type of feedback exaggerates the effects of variations from normal

positive feedback

The quadrants of the abdominopelvic region include all except

pelvic quadrant

A person lying on a bed gazing at the ceiling is in the ___ position.

supine

A person facing forward with hands at the sides and palms facing forward is in the ______ position.

anatomical

What region corresponds with the buttocks?

gluteal

What term refers to the foot?

pedal

The urinary bladder is found in the ___ quadrant and the ____ quadrant.

right lower left lower

The liver is primarily located in the ____ quadrant.

right upper

While standing erect, the direction of caudal is ____.

downward

While standing in the anatomical position, ____.

front refers to anterior and ventral. back refers to posterior and dorsal

Terms of anatomical direction are used to describe ____.

one body part in relation to another

An anatomical term that means the same as ventral is ___.

anterior

Which plane divides the body into right and left planes?

Sagittal

A midsagittal section would pass through the ___.

spleen

The heart is ___ to the lungs.

medial

The wrist is ___ to the elbow.

distal

The chin is ____ to the nose.

inferior

The muscle known as the diaphragm separates the ____ from the ____.

thoracic cavity abdominopelvic cavity

The thoracic cavity contains the

pleural cavities

The serous membrane covering the stomach and most of the intestines is called the ____.

peritoneum

____ is a structure located within the mediastinum.

pericardial sac

This organ is not located within the abdominal cavity.

ovary

Visceral pericardium is located ____.

on the heart itself

The two major divisions of the ventral body cavity are the ____ and ____.

thoracic abdominopelvic

The molecule CO2 is known as ____.

carbon dioxide

The molecule O2 is known as ___.

oxide

____ is not an example of an inorganic compound.

proteins

A solution containing equal numbers of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions is ___.

neutral

What would be the most acidic?

stomach secretions pH of 1

If a substance has a pH higher than 7, it is ___.

alkaline

Which has a greater concentration of hydrogen ions, a substance with a pH of 5 or a substance with a pH of 4?

a pH of 4

A ___ removes hydrogen ions and an ___ releases hydrogen ions.

base acid

Carbohydrate molecules ___.

are the body's most readily available source of energy

The most important metabolic fuel in the body is ___.

glucose

The group of organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a near 1:2:1 ratio is defined as a ___.

carbohydrate

Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins are classified as ____.

organic molecules

What is the symbol for an amino acid?

-NH2

Lipids _____.

form essential structural components of the cells, provide roughly twice the energy as carbohydrates, help to maintain body temperature, and cushion organs against shock

A lipid made of a glycerol molecule with two fatty acids attached to one side and a phosphate group connecting a nonlipid group attached to the other is a ___.

triglyceride

You would expect a peptide bond to link ____.

two amino acids

Each amino acid differs from another in the ___.

nature of the side chain

The alpha-helix and pleated sheet are examples of ____ protein structure.

secondary

Interaction between individual polypeptide chains to form a protein complex is ____ structure.

quaternary

The most abundant high-energy compound in cells is ___.

adenosine triphosphate

Molecules that store and process genetic information are the ___.

nucleic acids

According to the rules of complementary base pairing in nucleic acids, cytosine would pair with the base ____.

guanine

The smallest living unit within the human body is ___.

a protein

The watery component of the cytoplasm is called ___.

cytosol

The plasma membrane is composed of ____.

a bilayer of of phospholipids

Microfilaments ___.

with myosin, produce cell movement
anchor the cytoskeleton to membrane proteins and control the consistency of cytoplasm

Microtubules have these functions: ___.

they form structural components of organelles, move chromosomes during cell division, provide a mechanism for moving organelles and provide strength

___ consists of a network of intracellular membranes with attached ribosomes.

rough endoplasmic reticulum

Most of the ATP required to power cellular operations is produced in the __.

mitochondria

Some cells contain large numbers of mitochondria while others have relatively few to none. This suggests that ___.

cells with large numbers of mitochondria have a high energy demand

The control center for cellular operations is the ___.

nucleus

mRNA is needed to synthesize ___ in the cytoplasm.

proteins

The functional units of DNA that contain the instructions for making one or more proteins are ___.

chromosomes

The movement of oxygen from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is an example of ___.

diffusion

A solution that contains a lower osmotic pressure than the cytoplasm of a cell is called __.

hypotonic

"'spikes" form on a blood cell when it is placed in a ___ solution.

hypertonic

Facilitated diffusion differs from ordinary diffusion in that ___.

the rate of molecular movement is limited by the number of available carrier molecules

Assume that the transport of a particular amino acid across the plasma membrane is observed (1) to occur only down its concentration gradient and (2) to slow when a similar amino acid is added to the extracellular fluid. The movement of the amino acid through the membrane is most likely by ___.

facilitated diffusion

The intake of small membrane vesicles from the extracellular fluid is called __.

endocytosis

A defense cell engulfing a bacterium illustrates ___.

phagocytosis

The stage in a cell's life cycle in which the cell performs its normal functions and prepares for division is called ___.

interphase

During mitosis, chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes during __.

anaphase

During this phase of cell division, the chromosomes uncoil, the nuclear membrane forms, and cytokinesis occurs.

telophase

If an animal cell lacked centrioles, it would not be able to __.

form the mitotic spindle

During mitosis, two daughter cells form, each of which has ___.

the same number of chromosomes as the original cell

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