APUSH Review: Units 3-4

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Units 3-4 from American History: A Survey by Alan Brinkley

Spoils System

The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale.

Maysville Road Veto

1830 - The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.

Worcester V. Georgia

Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it

Jackson and Indian Removal

Indian: Policy of removal of all tribes west of the Mississippi River/The sorrowful path along which thousands of Indians were removed to Oklahoma

Trail of Tears

the forced removal of Cherokees and their transportation to Oklahoma

Bank of The United States

Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.

Nicholas Biddle

President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.

"Pet" Banks

State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.

Roger Taney

United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court

Charles River Bridge v Warren Bridge

1837) interest of community are above corporate rights case settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding obligation of contract

Peggy Eaton Affair

A social scandal where many wealthy cabinet member's wives snubbed the socially unacceptable Peggy Eaton, wife of John Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.

Webster-Hayne Debate

It was an unplanned series of speeches in the Senate, during which Robert Hayne of South Carolina interpreted the Constitution as little more than a treaty between sovereign states, and Daniel Webster expressed the concept of the United States as one nation. The debate cemented the image of Daniel Webster, as a legendary defender of Constitution and Union

Tariff of Abominations

Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South

Nullification crisis

Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void.

John C Calhoun

South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification

South Carolina exposition and Protest

In 1828 Calhoun anonymously wrote this widely circulated book which he spelled out his argument that the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional and that aggrieved states therefore had the right to nullify the law within their borders.

Force Acts

the government banned the use of terror, force or bribery to prevent someone from voting because of their race. Other laws banned the KKK entirely and brought forth military help to enforce these laws.

Panic of 1837

Ecnomic downturn caused by loose lending practices of stat banks' and overspeculation. Martin Van Buren spent most of his time in office attempting to stablize and lessen the economic situation

Era of the "common man"

Jackson was among the "common man". He was from the backwoods and supported States Rights along with other issues popular among the poor, democrats.

De Toqueville

A French aristocrat who visited American in 1831, de Toqueville saw in America "general equality: among the people. He extolled America's lack of distinct ranks and praised the fluidity of the system. He did, however, warn that it could not last forever, a view that many Americans shared 4: 1825-1865

"King Andrew I"

as a new political party was created in opposition to the president, they began referring to Andrew Jackson with this name, representing his "abusive" use of political power.

Whig Party

a former political party in the United States in opposition to Andrew Jackson aka "King Andrew I"

William Henry Harrison

9th President of the United States NOUN
EX. caught pneumonia during his inauguration and died shortly after (1773-1841)

Lowell Mills

textile mill located in a factory town in Massachusetts that employed farm girls who lived in company-owned boardinghouses

Samuel Morse

United States portrait painter who patented the telegraph and developed the Morse code (1791-1872)

Cyrus McCormick

United States inventor and manufacturer of a mechanical harvester (1809-1884)

Cult of Domesticity

idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands

Irish and German Immigration

a. Germans - West -- More skilled
b. Irish - North East -- Catholics, Increased anti-Catholicism
c. American religious and political freedoms also attracted many Europeans fleeing from the failed revolutions of 1848
d. The Irish were refugees from disaster, fleeing the Irish potato famine;They filed many low wage unskilled jobs in America; Cheap labor

Nativism

the belief that native-born Americans are superior to foreigners

Know Nothing Party

Group of prejudice people who formed a political party during the time when the KKK grew. Anti-Catholics and anti-foreign. They were also known as the American Party.

Romanticism

a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization

Commonwealth V Hunt

(1842) a landmark ruling of the MA Supreme Court establishing the legality of labor unions and the legality of union workers striking if an employer hired non-union workers.

Transcendentalism

any system of philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical and material

Second Great Awakening

A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.

Burned-Over District

area of New York State along the Erie Canal that was constantly aflame with revivalism and reform; as wave after wave to fervor broke over the region, groups such as the Mormons, Shakers, and Millerites found support among the residents.

Charles G. Finney

urged people to abandon sin and lead good lives in dramatic sermons at religious revivals

Temperance Movement

campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages

"The Old Deluder" Law

50 or more families-private tutor for kids
100 or more mandatory school built

Dorothea Dix

Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums

Elizabeth Blackwell

First woman to receive a medical degree in the U.S.

Horace Mann

United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)

McGuffey Readers

A series of elementary textbooks embedded with the virtues of hard work, punctuality, and sobriety.

Seneca Falls Convention

Kicked off the equal-rights-for-women campaign led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony (1848)

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott

helped organize the first women's rights convention

Penitentiaries

new prisons in PA where prisoners were placed in solitary confinement to force them to reflect on sins and repent; high rate of prisoner suicides caused the end of the system

American Colonization Society

organization founded in 1817 to transport Blacks back to Africa

William Lloyd Garrison

United States abolitionist who published an anti-slavery journal (1805-1879)

Frederick Douglass

United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)

Elijah Lovejoy

American Presbyterian minister, journalist, and news paper editor who was murdered by a mob for his abolitionist views

Grimke Sisters

Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.

Denmark Vesey and Nat Turner

led rebellion in 1821 in south carolina, led rebellion in 1832 in virginia

Gag Rule

1835 law passed by Southern congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in Congress

Underground Railroad

abolitionists secret aid to escaping slaves

Free-Soilers

Northern antislavery politicians, like Abraham Lincoln, who rejected radical abolitionism but sought to prohibit the expansion of slavery in the western territories

Sojourner Truth

United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)

Manumission

the formal act of freeing from slavery

King Cotton

cotton and cotton-growing considered, in the pre-Civil War South, as a vital commodity, the major factor not only in the economy but also in politics.

American Methodist Episcopal Church

Many ex slaves lives revolved around this Church in the years after they were freed

Slave Codes

laws in the southern states that controlled enslaved people

Brook Farm

An experiment in Utopian socialism, it lasted for six years (1841-1847) in New Roxbury, Massachusetts.

Oneida Community

A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.

Shakers

a celibate and communistic Christian sect in the United States

Joseph Smith and Brigham Young

the two main morman leaders

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