The western Goths, that invaded Italy and Spain after the partitioning of the empire.
The historical period from around 500 A.D. up to around 1450 A.D. between the fall of Rome and the birth of the Renaissance.
A group of Germanic people who rose to prominence under the leadership of King Clovis.
Religious community where Christians called monks gave up their possessions and devoted their lives to serving God
Italian monk who founded the Benedictine order about 540.
A pope distinguished for his spiritual and temporal leadership.
The king of the Franks who unified Gaul and established his capital at Paris and founded the Frankish monarchy.
Battle of Tours
European armies defeat Muslim armies and stop the spread of Islam in Europe.
Treaty Of Verdun
Treaty that ended power struggle of Charlemagne's 3 sons after his death and split Franks into 3 kingdoms
The name of the Viking boat.
Believed to have "discovered" America in 1000 AD.
An arm of the North Atlantic between the British Isles and Scandinavia.
Charles the Bald
Son of Charlemagne
An offering of a tenth part of some personal income
A piece of land held under the feudal system.
A person who has general authority over others.
Courtesy towards women
Medieval artillery used during sieges/ worked like a giant slingshot.
Medieval artillery used during sieges/ flung huge rocks that crashed into castle walls.
The body of codified laws governing the affairs of a Christian church.
Men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection.
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia.
The alliance of merchants and the pope against Frederick.
An English country landowner.
Wandering poets; their love songs focused on cherishing and protecting women.
Usually herbivorous land turtles having clawed elephant-like limbs.
Enabled the warrior to ride and handle heavier weapons
The act of delivering from sin or saving from evil.
The sacred rituals of the Church.
Head of the Catholic Church.
The act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church.
An ecclesiastical censure by the Roman Catholic Church withdrawing certain sacraments and Christian burial from a person or all persons in a particular district.
Otto the Great
King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor
The appointment of bishops and abbots by secular rulers, often in exchange for temporal protection.
Pope Gregory VII
Reformed a lot and determined to challenge secular authority. He caused a lot of conflict and was admired by many and hated by many. He banned lay investiture, which angered Henry IV.
Concordant of Worms
Agreement between the Pope and Henry IV that separated the appointment of church and government officials
Instrumental in the defeat of the knights at the Battle of Legnano.
Lesser lords who pledged their service and loyalty to a greater lord in a military capacity.
Followers of Islam
Muslims who attacked Europe and converted to Christianity and established Hungary.
Invaders of Europe that came from Scandinavia
The social system that developed in Europe in the 8th C.
Warriors who fought on horseback.
The king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor.
Erik the Red
A Viking from Norway who founded Greenland's first European settlement.
Battle of Stiklesta
This was between Norway and Sweden
Had a platform on top that lowered like a drawbridge.