..., act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining
gender empowerment measure
..., Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
human development index
..., Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
..., percentage of people who can read and write
..., The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
structural adjustment program
..., Economic policies imposed on less developed countries by international agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations, and charging citizens more for services.
..., the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
..., Alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organizing, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards.
gender related development index
..., Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes.
millennium development goals
..., Eight international development goals that 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015. They include reducing extreme poverty, reducing child mortality rates, fighting disease epidemics such as AIDS, and developing a global partnership for development.
..., (economics) the ratio of the quantity and quality of units produced to the labor per unit of time
..., The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment.
foreign direct investment
..., a joint venture between a foreign company and a United States company
gross domestic product
..., measure of the United States economy adopted in 1991
less developed country
..., poorer countries that do not manufacture as many of their goods as more developed countries.
more developed country
..., (MDC) also known as a relatively developed country, a country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development.
..., The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
..., A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
..., group's system of economic production. In non-industrial societies, it is usually based on food production.
..., relating to rural matters
..., a large-scale farming enterprise
..., process whereby the farm has moved from being the centerpiece of agricultural production to become one part of an integrated string of vertically organized industrial processes including production, storage, processing, distribution, marketing and retailing
..., The land that we farm on and what we choose to put were on our fields. Effects how much yield one gets from their plants.
agricultural location model
..., An attempt to explain the pattern of agricultural land use in terms of accessibility, costs, distance, and prices.
..., Through time nomadic people noticed the growing of plants in a cycle and began to domesticate them and use for there own use. Carl Sauer points out vegetative planting and seed agriculture as the original forms. He also points out that vegetative planting likely was originated in SE Asia and seed agriculture originated in W. India, N. China and Ethiopia. Without the development of agriculture we would still have a relatively small and likely uneducated population.
..., the federal department that administers programs that provide services to farmers (including research and soil conservation and efforts to stabilize the farming economy)
..., When animals are tamed and used for food and profit.
..., rearing aquatic animals or cultivating aquatic plants for food
..., The revolution of biotechnology and the use of it in societies.
..., the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments
..., a farm operated collectively
..., Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
..., a bar of magnetic material (as soft iron) that passes through a coil and serves to increase the inductance of the coil
..., the outside boundary or surface of something
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
regions in which large amounts of agriculture take place
the business of a dairy
debt for nature swap
Forgiveness of international debt in exchange for nature protection in developing countries
..., the act of dispersing or diffusing something
..., Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
..., any action that relates to the making, buying, and selling of goods and services
..., of second rank or importance or value
..., a preliminary election where delegates or nominees are chosen
..., from 63 million to 2 million years ago
..., require a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill (e.g., scientific research, high-level management).
...modification made in the enviorment
..., any one of various substances used to kill harmful insects (insecticide), fungi (fungicide), vermin, or other living organisms that destroy or inhibit plant growth, carry disease, or are otherwise harmful.
..., the washing away of soil by the flow of water
..., the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert
extensive subsistence agriculture
..., consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre
..., A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
slash and burn
..., a farming method involving the cutting of trees, then burning them to provide ash-enriched soil for the planting of crops
..., A system of effective agriculture used throughout Mesoamerica that relies on crop rotation and the planting of multiple crops in a single field. The term is derived from a Nahuatl word meaning 'field.'
..., A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
..., the raising of livestock for food by moving herds from place to place to find pasture and water
..., A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
..., Industries involved in the activities of prospecting, exploring, developing, and producing for non-regenerative natural resources from the Earth
..., During war, higher demand farmers bought land. Then demand goes down, overproduction, no money to pay off loans. Dust Bowl.
..., working the land as an occupation or way of life
..., a building where livestock are fattened for market
first agricultural revolution
..., Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
..., the act of someone who fishes as a diversion
..., (ecology) a community of organisms where each member is eaten in turn by another member
..., the science of planting and caring for forests and the management of growing timber
...agriculture becomeing globalized like you can get foods fromo other countries and things out of season year round
..., the introduction of pesticides and high-yield grains and better management during the 1960s and 1970s which greatly increased agricultural productivity
..., the season during which a crop grows best
hunting and gathering
..., The killing of wild animals and fish as well as the gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance.
...farming for what you need
..., the clearing of rows in the field through the use of hoes, rakes, & other manual equipment
..., An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
..., the growing of vegetables or flowers for market
..., An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of Western Europe, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados,
..., (fossil fuel) natural resources containing hydrocarbons, which are not derived from animal or plant sources
..., the act of extracting ores or coal etc from the earth
..., economy that relies on a centralized government to control all or most factors of production and to make all or most production and allocation decisions
..., genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
..., raising a large amount of a "cash crop" for local sale or export
..., capable of being renewed
..., A resource that cannot be remade quickly or cannot be remade at all
..., Sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities. Live in villages, hamlets on farms, or in other isolated houses. Typically have an agricultural character, with an economy based on logging, mining, petroleum, natural gas or tourism (ecotourism).
..., a number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings (e.g., Asian longhouse)
sauer carl o
..., defined cultural landscape, as an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group. A combination of cultural features such as language and religion; economic features such as agriculture and industry; and physical features such as climate and vegetation. "Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape is the result."
second agricultural revolution
..., tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
..., The doing of a praticular kind of work
Grains that can be stored and used throughout the year
In American commercial grain agriculture, a farm on which no one lives; planting and harvesting is done by hired migratory crews.
lines laid out by surveyors prior to the settlement of an area
What is designed to maximize land ownership along the river?
metes and bounds
Legal description that begins at a well marked point and follows the boundaries around the tract, back to the place of beginning
township and range
rigid grid-like pattern used to facilitate the dispersal of settlers evenly across farmlands
Highest rate at which a renewable resource can be used indefinitely without reducing its available supply
third agricultural revolution
currently in progress, development of genetically modified organisms
the act of implementing the control of equipment with advanced technology
increased use of fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The development of higher-yield crops has produced: a 'miracle wheat seed" which is shorter and stiffer, less sensitive to variation in day length, responds better to fertilizers, and matures faster; a similar miracle rice seed, that was heartier and has increased yields; a high-yield corn seed is currently being developed.
the mass production of food products from raw animal and plan materials utilizing the principles of food technology
tragedy of the commons
situation in which people acting individually and in their own interest use up commonly available but limited resources, creating disaster for the entire community
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
a farm where vegetables are grown for market
created model that says that perishable goods are located near market area as well as heavy items