GEOG 1111 Test 2 Answers

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Which of the following lists the correct, generalized sequence of climates from the equator to the poles?
a.)Tropical→Dry→Mesothermal→Microthermal→Highland
b.)Polar→Microthermal→Dry→Mesothermal→Tropical
c.)Tropical→Dry→Mesothermal→Microthermal→Polar
d.)Dry→Tropical→Mesothermal→Microthermal→Polar

c.)Tropical→Dry→Mesothermal→Microthermal→Polar

The highest frequency of tornadoes per 10,000mi2 in the US occurs in
a.)Oklahoma
b.)South Dakota
c.)Florida
d.)Nebraska

a.)Oklahoma

Summer afternoon thundershowers in the southeastern US are more than likely a result of
a.)subtropical high pressure disturbance
b.)frontal lifting
c.)convectional lifting
d.)orographic lifting

c.)convectional lifting

Based on principles discussed earlier in the course, you know that the annual temperature range of places located in the interior of a continent is ____ those located along the coast at the same latitude
a.)less than
b.)greater than
c.)the same as

b.)greater than

The Coriolis force
a.)decreases with height above the surface
b.)is the only force acting on flows of air in the upper troposphere
c.)causes the apparent deflection of winds from a straight path
d.)drives air from areas of higher to lower barometric pressures

c.)causes the apparent deflection of winds from a straight path

The great circulations in the ocean basins occur around the _____ pressure systems and are known as ______
a.)subtropical high; gyres
b.)subpolar low; ocean streams
c.)subpolar low; gyres
d.)subtropical high; ocean streams

a.)subtropical hight; gyres

sWhen water freezes, its density
a.)decreases
b.)remains the same as in the liquid state
c.)increases

a.)decreases

Air masses which develop over canada are examples of ___ air masses
a.)cT
b.)mT
c.)mP
d.)cP

d.)cP

Atlanta, Georgia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Nagasaki, Japan all share the following climate classification
a.)semiarid steppe
b.)humid subtropical hot-summer
c.)mediterranean hot-summer
d.)humid continental hot-summer

b.)humid subtropical hot-summer

Which is false regarding global climate change?
a.)Earth is within 1C of the warmest temperature of the last 125,000 years
b.)The last two decades have been the warmest ever recorded
c.)The rate at which global temperatures are rising is higher than anywhere else in the entire measured temperature record
d.)There is a surprising lack of correlation between CO2 levels and temperatures

d.)There is a surprising lack of correlation between CO2 levels and temperatures

Which of the following is true of high pressure areas
a.)air converges and ascends within high pressure systems
b.)they generally involve atmospheric pressures lower than 1000mb
c.)air descends and diverges within high pressure systems
d.)They are characteristic for areas along the equator

c.)air descends and diverges within high pressure systems

Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?
a.)CO2
b.)Nitrogen
c.)Methane
d.)Nitrous oxide

b.)Nitrogen

What type of cloud that has a thin wispy appearance, consists of ice crystals, and often precedes a warm front?
a.)stratocumulus
b.)cirrus
c.)altostratus
d.)cumulonimbus

b.)cirrus

Which is true of the ENSO phenomenon
a.)Easterly winds along the equator increase in intensity
b.)The thermocline in the easter pacific ocean rises
c.)It always brings increased rain to the western US
d.)sea-surface temperatures can increase more than 8C above normal in the central and eastern pacific during an ENSO

d.)sea-surface temperatures can increase more than 8C above normal in the central and eastern pacific during an ENSO

An instrument used to measure air pressure is
a.)aneroid barometer
b.)thermometer
c.)mercury thermometer
d.)anemometer

a.)aneroid barometer

As air sinks down the leeward side of a mountain, it will move into a region of __ air pressure and will therefore be ___ by compression
a.)lower;heated
b.)lower;cooled
c.)higher;cooled
d.)higher;heated

d.)higher;heated

Tornadoes are ranked in terms of wind speed and related property damage using the _ scale
a.)Enhance fujita
b.)saffir-simspon
c.)beaufort
d.)richter
e.)mercalli

a.)Enhance fujita

Which is true of air flowing into low pressure center?
a.)air diverges and descends
b.)air converges and descends
c.)air converges and ascends
d.)air diverges and ascends

b.)air converges and descends

Which of the following describes the pressure gradient force
a.)It causes apparent deflection of winds from a straight path
b.)It is the only force acting on atmospheric flows in the upper troposphere
c.)It decreases with height above the surface
d.)It drives air from areas of higher to lower barometric pressure

d.)It drives air from areas of higher to lower barometric pressure

Hurricanes derive their energy from
a.)the latent heat of sublimation
b.)the latent heat of vaporization
c.)the latent heat of fusion
d.)the latent heat of condensation

d.)the latent heat of condensation

Excess surface water percolates through the zone of __ to reach the zone of __ and the water table
a.)porosity;permeability
b.)dehydration;hydration
c.)aeration;saturation
d.)hydration;infiltration

c.)aeration;saturation

Climate is
a.)the long term atmospheric condition—including extremes that may occur
b.)a reference to temperature patterns only
c.)the short-term condition of the atmosphere
d.)the weather of a region

a.)the long term atmospheric condition—including extremes that may occur

Precipitation normally refers to
a.)the actual evaportranspiration amount
b.)water that is respired by plants
c.)rain, sleet, snow, and hail
d.)the moisture demanded in the water balance

c.)rain, sleet, snow, and hail

The condensation process requires
a.)moisture droplets
b.)dew-point temperatures alone
c.)condensation nuclei and saturated air
d.)condensation nuclei alone

c.)condensation nuclei and saturated air

Humid subtropical climates receive ____ precipitation during the summer and ___ precipitation in winter
a.)convectional;frontal
b.)convectional;ITCZ
c.)orographic;frontal
d.)frontal;convectional

a.)convectional;frontal

"Cold and dry" temperature and precipitation patterns are characteristic of
a.)taiga regions that have cool summers
b.)polar climates
c.)subtropical latitudes
d.)humid continental climates that have mild summer

b.)polar climates

Normal sea level pressure has a value of
a.)1013.2 millibars
b.)32.01 millibars of mercury
c.)28.50 inches of lead
d.)500mb

a.)1013.2 millibars

Air that is not saturated will cool or heat at a rate of __________ as it rises or descend, respectively
a.)10C/1000m
b.)6.4C/1000m
c.)6C/1000m

a.)10C/1000m

Which of the following soil particle sizes is usually associated with the slowest recharge rate?
a.)clay
b.)sand
c.)silt

a.)clay

A fog that develops when warm, moist air blows over a cold current (such as the California Current) is an example of ____ fog
a.)radiation
b.)evaporation
c.)advection
d.)convection

c.)advection

Which of the following is associated these names: Sonora, Kalahari, Namib, Atacama?
a.)subtropical high pressure
b.)world's equatorial rain forests
c.)major agricultural regions
d.)subpolar lows

a.)subtropical high pressure

The severity of storm activity along a warm front is ____ than that along most cold fronts because the rate of uplift is _____ along a warm front
a.)less;slower
b.)less;faster
c.)greater;faster
d.)greater;slower

a.)less;slower

The general term that refers to the tendency of a parcel of air to either remain in place or change its initial position is
a.)conditional instability
b.)stasis
c.)stability
d.)adiabatic

c.)stability

Between 20 to 35N latitude and 20-25S latitude are
a.)warm and west conditions, and the world's great tropical forests
b.)the largest zone of water surpluses in the world
c.)the world's arid and semi-arid desert regions
d.)cyclonic systems of low pressure

c.)the world's arid and semi-arid desert regions

The term "rain shadow" refers to
a.)wet areas on the downwind sides of mountains
b.)dry regions on the leeward side of mountain ranges
c.)windward slopes of mountains
d.)periods of time during which there is a lack of rainfall
e.)areas that are characteristic of the western slopes and margins of the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada

b.)dry regions on the leeward side of mountain ranges

A mT air mass is likely to be ____ than a CT air mass because the mT air mass ____
a.)wetter;is warmer than the cT air mass
b.)drier; is a cold air mass
c.)wetter; forms over the ocean
d.)hotter; forms over the ocean
e.)drier"forms under the equatorial low

c.)wetter; forms over the ocean

An isoline of equal pressure plotted on a weather map is known as
a.)an isobar
b.)the thermal equator
c.)an isotherm
d.)an equilibrium line

a.)an isobar

When water evaporates, it ____ heat energy and ____ the surrounding air
a.)releases;heats
b.)absorbs;heats
c.)absorbs;cools
d.)releases;cools

c.)absorbs;cools

Which of the following is true of migrating centers of low pressure in the Northern Hemisphere?
a.)the winds diverge from the pressure system and spiral outward in a clockwise fashion
b.)they form only a minor weather pattern in the middle and higher latitudes
c.)These pressure systems tend to move east to west along storm tracks
d.)these pressure systems are characterized vy converging, ascending air that spirals inward in a counterclockwise fashion

d.)these pressure systems are characterized vy converging, ascending air that spirals inward in a counterclockwise fashion

Relative humidity is
a.)the amount of water vapor in the air compared to the normal amount
b.)the amount of moisture in the air relative to your own sensible feelings
c.)a basically unused concept when it comes to weather topics
d.)the amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature expressed as a percentage of the water vapor capacity in the air

d.)the amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature expressed as a percentage of the water vapor capacity in the air

The High Plains aquifer
a.)received much of its water from melting glaciers in the past
b.)is not Earth's largest aquifer
c.)averages about 30 inches of rain per year
d.)was not heavily mined until the 1960's

a.)received much of its water from melting glaciers in the past

Hail forms
a.)when water freezes inside a cloud and is then recirculated by convections currents until it falls
b.)when water vapor sublimates (deposits) inside a cirrus cloud
c.)when water falls from a cloud and freezes during its fall to the ground
d.)every time water condenses onto dust particles

a.)when water freezes inside a cloud and is then recirculated by convections currents until it falls

A water-bearing rock stratum is called a(n)
a.)water table
b.)aquifer
c.)aquiclude
d.)zone of aeration

b.)aquifer

Which instrument would you use to measure wind speed?
a.)anemometer
b.)barometer
c.)Beaufort wind scale
d.)wind vane
e.)wind chill chart

a.)anemometer

Greenhouse gases act to ____ temperatures by ____ thermal infrared radiation
a.)decrease; absorbing and releasing
b.)increase;absorbing and releasing
c.)increase;reflecting
d.)decrease;blocking

b.)increase;absorbing and releasing

The tropical rain forest climate receives most of its rainfall as a result of
a.)frontal uplift
b.)convectional uplift
c.)orographic uplift

b.)convectional uplift

The mercury barometer (consisting of mercury in a tube, sealed at one end and open at the other, and inserted in a vessel of mercury), was invented by
a.)Sir Isaac Newton
b.)Galileo
c.)Evangelista Torricelli
d.)Eratosthenes

c.)Evangelista Torricelli

Clouds that have vertical development and produce thunderstorms are called
a.)nimbostratus
b.)cumulus
c.)cumulonimbus
d.)stratocumulus

c.)cumulonimbus

The largest portion of fresh water today is located in
a.)groundwater resources
b.)ice caps and glaciers
c.)clouds
d.)the major rivers and lakes of the world

b.)ice caps and glaciers

The warmest years in the history of weather instruments were
a.)2005,2007,2009, and 1998
b.)recorded during the period 1910 to 1921
c.)observed in the 1880s and 1890s
d.)recorded in the first half of this century

a.)2005,2007,2009, and 1998

The greater the difference in temperature between the wet bulb and dry bulb on a sling psychrometer, the ____ the air is and the ___ the relative humidity
a.)wetter;lower
b.)wetter;higher
c.)drier;higher
d.)drier;lower

d.)drier;lower

What is the heat energy involved in the change of state, or phase, in water
a.)mechanical heat
b.)latent heat
c.)fusion heat
d.)sensible heat

b.)latent heat

The dry season in the tropical monsoon climate occurs when
a.)cold ocean currents shift into the region
b.)cold air masses dominate the region
c.)the ITCZ is not overhead
d.)the ITCZ is overhead

c.)the ITCZ is not overhead

Tornadoes in the US occur as a result of the interaction of warm, moist ____ air masses with cold, dry ___ air masses, respectively
a.)mT;mP
b.)mP;cP
c.)cP;mT
d.)mT;cP

d.)mT;cP

Which of the following primary pressure areas are produced by thermal factors, rather than dynamic factors
a.)subtropical high and subpolar low
b.)Aleutian low and Icelandic low
c.)equatorial low and Bermuda high
d.)equatorial low and polar high

d.)equatorial low and polar high

The area of conflict between colder and warmer air masses in the subpolar region
a.)is unrelated to the formation of cyclonic storms
b.)is most distinctive during summer months in each respective hemisphere
c.)is referred to as the subtropical contact zone
d.)is termed the polar front

d.)is termed the polar front

Surface tension and capillarity are the result of
a.)magnetic bonding
b.)hydrogen bonding
c.)molecular hold
d.)gravitational attraction

b.)hydrogen bonding

The jet stream helps control
a.)the boundary between cold polar air to the north and warm air to the south
b.)the movement of storms
c.)the movement of high and low pressure systems
d.)all of the above
e.) none of the above-jet streams do not affect surface weather phenomena

d.)all of the above

On a weather map of air pressure, what can you infer from a closer spacing of isobars?
a.)a weak pressure gradient creating a slower flow of air
b.)a steep pressure gradient creating a slower flow of air
c.)little without knowing temperature patterns
d.)higher pressures
e.)a steep pressure gradient creating a faster flow of air

e.)a steep pressure gradient creating a faster flow of air

The line of contact between the zone of aeration and the zone of saturation is known as the
a.)water table
b.)influent line
c.)saturation contact
d.)aquiclude

a.)water table

The term "ground water mining" refers to
a.)the removal of overlying rock to reach ground water
b.)the use of ground water to mine minerals
c.)the removal of ground water at a rate faster than at which it can be replaced
d.)the excavation of tunnels to reach ground water

c.)the removal of ground water at a rate faster than at which it can be replaced

Which part of a hurricane consists of dry, subsiding air?
a.)spiral bands
b.)eye
c.)eye wall (collar clouds)
d.)none of these-there are no dry conditions in a hurricane

b.)eye

The horizontal motion of air relative to Earth's surface is
a.)barometric pressure
b.)a result of equalized pressure across the surface
c.)wind
d.)convection flow

c.)wind

Land-sea breezes are caused by
a.)the fact that water heats and cools faster than land surfaces
b.)The fact that warmer air is denser and settles to the surface of the land
c.)onshore (toward the land) air flows that develop in the afternoon
d.)cooler air flowing offshore (toward the ocean) in the afternoon

c.)onshore (toward the land) air flows that develop in the afternoon

Potential evapotranspiration refers to
a.)the amount of unmet water demand in an environment
b.)the amount of water that would evaporate or transpire if it were available
c.)the moisture supply
d.)actual evapotranspiration under conditions of moisture deficit

b.)the amount of water that would evaporate or transpire if it were available

Weather is
a.)the climate of a region
b.)the short-term condition of the atmosphere
c.)a reference to temperature patterns only
d.)the long-term atmospheric condition, including extremes that may occur

b.)the short-term condition of the atmosphere

In the water budget, ____ is the major receipt and ____ is the major expenditure
a.)PREICP;ACTET
b.)insolation;radiative cooling
c.)outgassing;dissociation
d.)ACTET;PREICP

a.)PREICP;ACTET

Cooling of a surface overnight that chills the air layer directly above the surface may form
a.)an evaporation fog
b.)an upslope fog
c.)a radiation fog
d.)an advection fog

c.)a radiation fog

A humidity measure that remains constant as temperatures and pressure change, and which is expressed as a mass of water vapor per mass (g/kg) or air is
a.)relative humidity
b.)vapor pressure
c.)specific humidity
d.)the dew-point

c.)specific humidity

Which of the following would decrease the rate at which evapotranspiration occurs?
a.)increased temperatures
b.)increased water availability
c.)increased humidity
d.)increased wind speed

c.)increased humidity

The normal range for air pressure at sea level is
a.)100-650mb
b.)1060-2010mb
c.)980-1050mb
d.)500-1000mb

c.)980-1050mb

Eustasy refers to
a.)changes in the total amount of water on Earth
b.)the amount of new water from outgassing volcanoes
c.)worldwide changes in sea level
d.)a steady-state equilibrium in the water system

c.)worldwide changes in sea level

Glacio-eustatic factors refer to
a.)changes in sea level related to the melting of icebergs
b.)changes in sea level related to the increase or decrease in quantities of ice
c.)a steady-state equilibrium in the water system
d.)changes in the total amount of water on Earth

b.)changes in sea level related to the increase or decrease in quantities of ice

Precipitation that reaches Earth's surface penetrates the soil surface through the process of
a.)percolation
b.)interception and throughfall
c.)throughfall
d.)infiltration

d.)infiltration

If precipitation and soil moisture are inadequate to meet potential evapotranspiration demands, the moisture condition is described as
a.)a deficit
b.)a surplus
c.)soil moisture utilization
d.)actual evapotranspiration

a.)a deficit

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