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Nares

Entry and exit to nasal cavity nostrils/back of cavity

Nasal Conchae

Increases surface area in the internal nose and prevents dehydration by trapping water droplets during exhalation.

Frontal Sinus

reduce weight of skull, and resonating chamber for sound.

nasopharynx

exchanges small amounts of air with the auditory tubes to equalize air pressure between the pharynx and the middle ear.

Oral Cavity

The mouth receives food and begins digestion by mechanically reducing the size of solid particles and mixing them with saliva. The lining of the mouth as well as the saliva glands provide lubrication which aide in speech, swallowing, and the digestion of food.

Nasal Cavity

Within the nasal cavity are structures called Conchae or Turbinates. These structure cause the air being inhaled to spin and warm up as well humidifying it so that it doesnt damage the lungs when it gets there.

Hard Palate

Anterior portion of the roof of the mouth- is formed by the maxillae and palatine bones and is covered by a mucous membrane; it forms a bony partition between the oral and nasal cavity... Makes it possible to chew and breathe at the same time.

Soft Palate

Forms the posterior portion of the roof of the mouth, arch-shaped muscular partition between the oropharynx and nasopharynx that is lined with mucous membrane... Makes it possible to chew and breath at the same time.

Uvula

During swallowing, the soft palate and uvula are drawn superiorly, closing off the nasopharynx and preventing swallowed foods and liquids from entering the nasal cavity.

Oropharynx

Houses palatine and lingual tonsils, and serves as a common passageway for air, food, and drink.

Auditory Tube

exchanges small amounts of air with the nasopharynx to equalize air pressure between the pharynx and the middle ear

esophagus

Connects the pharynx to the stomach

laryngopharynx

Both a respiratory and a digestive pathway and is lined by nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium.

epiglottis

composed of elastic cartilage and closes over the glottis during swallowing.

glottis

opening that allows air into the larynx

larynx

Prevents choking and voice production

hyoid bone

attachment site for some tongue muscles and for muscles of the neck and pharynx.

thyroid cartilage

forms the bulk of the anterior wall of the larynx, and serves to protect the vocal folds ("vocal cords"), which are located directly behind it.

cricoid cartilage

The function of the cricoid cartilage is to provide attachments for the various muscles, cartilages, and ligaments involved in opening and closing the airway and in speech production.

true vocal cord (vocal folds)

Principle structures of voice production

False vocal folds (ventricular folds)

function in holding the breath against pressure in the thoracic cavity, such as might occur when a person strains to lift a heavy object.

Trachea (windpipe)

Tube-like conduit that conducts air from the larynx to the bronchi

Cartilaginous rings of trachea

c-shaped cartilage that prevents the trachea from collapsing. Give support and strength to the trachea.

lungs

The function of the lungs is transport oxygen into the bloodstream and to take carbon dioxide out of the bloodstream.

Primary Bronchi

Passageway for air; contain C-shaped rings of cartilage to maintain patency.

Secondary Bronchi

passageway for air; contain plates of cartilage to maintain patency.

Tertiary Bronchi

passageway for air; contain plates of cartilage to maintain patency.

Bronchioles

Passageway for air that contains smooth muscle. Respiratory Bronchi are the beginning of the respiratory zone of the respiratory system.

alveoli

Passageway for air; gas exchange; produce surfactant to maintain patency.

pleural cavity

contains pleural fluid which reduces friction between the parietal pleura and visceral pleura

visceral pleura

Covers the lungs themselves.

parietal pleura

Lines the wall of the Thoracic cavity

diaphragm

Muscle that is mainly used for normal respiration

Phrenic nerve

Provide the only motor supply to the diaphragm

Spirometer

Instrument used to measure lung volume. Subjects blow into Spirometer in order to get measurement.

Tidal Volume

The amount of air inhaled and exhaled during one normal breath. Normal value: 500mL

Expiratory reserve volume

Maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a normal exhalation. Normal value: 1,200mL

inspiratory reserve volume

Maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal inhalation. Normal Value: 3,100mL

vital capacity

Maximum volume of air expelled after a maximal inhalation. Normal value: 4,800mL

inspirtatory capacity

the volume of gas that can be taken into the lungs in a full inhalation, starting from the resting inspiratory position; equal to the tidal volume plus the inspiratory reserve volume. Normal Value: 3,600mL

expiratory capacity

Maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after breathing in normally

minute respiratory volume (and how to calculate)

The total amount of air which moves in and out of the lungs in a minute. calculation = Tidal volume x's respiratory rate

residual volume

Amount of air that remains in the lungs after a maximal exhalation.

How is carbon dioxide production and pH affected by activity? What role do they have in controlling ventilation?

Blood carbon dioxide levels increase during exercise. This causes blood pH to drop due to increased level of hydrogen ions. Breathing rate and depth are then increased allowing the lungs to exhale more carbon dioxide. As blood carbon dioxide levels decrease, blood pH returns to normal, and pulmonary ventilation returns to normal.

Mini Torso Labelled

Cat Respiratory system

Flat Respiratory Model

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