What shapes are viral capsids?
polyhedral and helical
An 8-year-old girl has scabs and pus-filled vesicles on her face and throat. Three weeks earlier she had visited her grandmother, who had shingles. What infection does the 8-year-old have?
In which of the following ways do viruses differ from eukaryotes?
viruses are required to replicate in a cell
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
Steptococcus pyogenes - erysipelas
Thrush and vaginitis are caused by
Which of the following is an important virulence factor for Streptococcus pyogenes?
Group M protein
The etiologic agent of chickenpox is
What bacteria can lead to all the diseases below? Answer: ____________________
The patient has vesicles and scabs over her forehead. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings shows gram-positive cocci in clusters. The etiology is
A 17-year-old boy has pus-filled cysts on his face and upper back. Microscopic examination reveals gram-positive rods. This infection is caused by
Which of the following is NOT likely to spread MRSA?
Which of the following is true about the normal microbiota of the nervous system?
There are no normal microbiota
Encephalitis and meningitis are difficult to treat because
Antibiotics cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier
Which of the following organisms does NOT cause meningitis?
Which of the following statements about rabies is false?
The resevoir is only horses
The symptoms of tetanus are due to
A 30-year-old woman was hospitalized after she experienced convulsions. On examination, she was alert and oriented and complained of a fever, headache, and stiff neck. Which of the following organisms could NOT be responsible for her symptoms?
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
Listeriosis - paralysis
A 30-year-old woman was hospitalized after she experienced convulsions. On examination, she was alert and oriented and complained of a fever, headache, and stiff neck. Which of the following is most likely to provide rapid identification of the cause of her symptoms?
Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid
Which of the following is NOT caused by prions?
A 15-year-old girl was hospitalized with fever, lethargy, and rash. Gram-negative, cocci were cultured from her cerebrospinal fluid. Her symptoms were caused by
Which of the following is treated with antibiotics?
A 1-year-old boy was listless, irritable, and sleepy. Capsulated gram-negative rods were cultured from his cerebrospinal fluid. His symptoms were caused by
The antibiotics did not cure her disease because the pathogen was probably
The disease described above is
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
UTI - Streptococcus pneumoniae
Which of the following is evidence that the arthritis afflicting children in Lyme, Connecticut, was due to bacterial infection?
Treatable with penicillin
Describe the replication steps for a dsDNA viral genome.
The double strands break apart and then do the same the SSDNA to replicate
Describe the replication steps for a (-)ssRNA viral genome.
It has to become a positive SSRNA in order to replicate (protein)
Describe Antigenic Shift
Antigenic shift is when a virus uncoats and combines with another to replicate and form a completely new virus. EX: a bird joins with a cow to make a new species
How do viruses acquire their envelope?
Viruses acquire their envelope by determining what they have to be protected against budding
Put the following steps in order:
Attachment, Penetration,Uncoating, Biosynthesis, Maturation, Release
Macular rash, fever, congenital version can cause fetal injury
Macular Rash, Koplik's Spots
High fever followed by rash
Benefits, Neither benefits nor is harmed, ex: tapeworm in a human intestine
benefits, is harmed, ex: tuberculosis bacteria in human lung
benefits, benefits, ex: bacteria in human colon
declining signs and symptoms
vague, general symptoms
no signs or symptoms
no signs or symptoms
most severe signs and symptoms
Which of the following is not technically a portal of entry but rather a means by which a pathogen can circumvent the typical portals of entry?
entry though the lining of the respiratory tract
What is immunology?
The study of the body's defenses.
subjective characteristics of a disease that can only be felt by the patient
Active Naturally Acquired Immunity
caused from infection or disease
Passive Naturally Acquired Immunity
caused from the placenta
Active Artificially Acquired Immunity
injected with antigens
Passive Artificially Acquired Immunity
injected with antibodies
Which of the following is an example of the mucous membranes serving as a portal of entry for disease?
A bite by a mosquito that carries the malaria parasite
Active Immune Response
Passive Immune Response
Which of the following situations might cause normal flora to become opportunistic pathogens?
Treatment of a cancer patient with radiation
Draw and explain an ELISA reaction: 3 points
It's finding out if you are sick or not. It's looking for antigens or antibodies in the blood
A nosocomial disease is a disease acquired by:
being in a health care facility
T cells attack the body's cells
Nonphagocytized immune complexes trigger mast cell deranulation
Immune-Complex mediated hypersensitivity
IgE on sensitized cells' membranes binds antigen causing degranulation
Antibodies and complement lyse target cells
A disease that normally occurs continuously at a relatively stable rate within a given population or geographic area is considered a/an __________ disease.
The index case is the first case of a disease:
identified in a given area or population
Which of the following is NOT considered part of the body's nonspecific defense against disease?
Which of the following symptoms are NOT part of the signs of inflammation?
Which of the following statements about innate immunity is NOT correct:
It is the body's resistance toward all pathogens
Which of the following is NOT considered part of the body's second line of defense?
lacrimal secretions (tears)
the end result of both the classical and alternate complement system
specific molecules that the body recognizes as foreign
The movement of a cell toward or away from a stimulus
The coating of a pathogen by complement
Increase in allergies and helminth infection
Monocytes that leave the bloodstream
Natural Killer Lymphocytes
Nonspecific leukocytes that work by secreting
toxins onto the surface of virally infected cells
First Line of Defense
Intact skin, sebum, tears, etc
Second Line of Defense
Which of the following produces an exogenous antigen?
a bacteria outside a cell
Which of the following statements about lymphocytes is incorrect?
B and T lymphocytes are non-specific
The designation "B" for B lymphocytes comes from
the bone marrow where these cells are produced
The humoral immune response is attributed to the action of
Which of the following is NOT considered the function of an antibody?
They can produce toxins that directly kill bacteria
Which of the following statements about T lymphocytes is incorrect?
T lymphocytes produce antibodies in response to antigen stimulation with B lymphocytes.
Which of the following statements concerning plasma cells is incorrect?
They live a long time and function as memory cells
Enhanced immune responses to subsequent exposures to an antigen to which the body has already been exposed are known as:
What type of immunity is produced by the body when a person gets a disease?
naturally acquired active immunity
What is the most efficient and cost-effective way to control infectious diseases?
active immunization by vaccination
All of the following statements are true of variolation EXCEPT:
It was risk-free
All of the following are methods for attenuation EXCEPT:
treatment with bleach
An inactivated vaccine has all the following characteristics EXCEPT:
it is made from unaltered pathogens
Killed vaccines work by stimulating:
the production of antibodies
Passive immunity is most importantly used when:
protection against a recent infection or disease is needed immediately
The type of ELISA that is mostly commonly performed:
detects the presence of a particular antibody
When a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell interact, this structure is also involved:
Deliberate infection of young children with particles of ground small pox scabs from children who had survived mild cases of smallpox was known as ___________
_________ is found on all nucleated cells
__________ is found on B Cells and APCs
Attenuated vaccines produce _______ immunity
An antigen produced by a pathogen while living inside a cell is known as a/an _________ antigen
The surface of each B-lymphocyte is covered with about 250,000 to 500,000 identical copies of ________
B cell receptors
Which of the following is NOT considered a hypersensitivity reaction?
rejection of a transplanted kidney
An example of a type I hypersensitivity reaction is:
watery eyes after exposure to animal dander
Which of the following cells are NOT involved hypersensitivity reactions?
When the cells involved with hypersensitivites degranulate, what is the result?
How are type I allergic reactions diagnosed?
by injecting very small quantities of suspected allergens under the skin of the forearm
If a recipient has preexisting antibodies to foreign blood group antigens that are donated, which of the following would NOT happen?
The donated cells would function normally
Which of the following causes graft-versus-host disease?
skin transplant from one location in the body to another, or from one identical twin to another
Commensal relationships harm one member and benefit another
Edward Jenner was the physician who first used cowpox to vaccinate against smallpox.
The process of reducing the virulence of a microbe is known as attenuation
Most of the available antimicrobial agents are effective against
Explain MHC and its functions
MHC is there for recognition. It's use in finger printing. MCHI is present in a cells except RBC's while MHC II is in B cells and APC cells
You are observing a cell through a microscope and note that it does not have a nucleus. You conclude that it most likely
is a prokaryote
Which of the following is a chemical component of a bacterial cell wall?
What word best describes the following arrangement of cells OOOO
After a gram stain you find an organism that is purple, which indicates high amounts of peptidoglycan in the cell wall. What type of organism do you have?
A gram positive organism
Which of the following is NOT a part of the active transport process?
Which of the following is true about gram negative cell walls?
They have an outer layer composed of lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and phospholipids.
What will happen if a bacterial cell is placed in distilled water with a high salt concentration?
Water will leave the cell
Explain why you chose the answer above.
For the classification of microorganisms- what are the three domains?
How do prokaryotes replicate?
Which of the following will not have effects on the action of an enzyme?
presence of water
Which of the following IS FALSE about Archaea?
evidence suggests they evolved from algea
A primary difference between chemotrophic and phototrophic bacteria is?
Who was the first to use a microscope to visualize microorganisms?
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
Were devised to identify agents of disease.
Who developed the first vaccine (using controversial methods) for smallpox?
Bacteria that are bacilli:
Have a rod shape.
Can be produced when nutrients are scarce.
Which of the following types of microbes might be found in Salt Lake?
Put the following steps of binary fission in order, from earliest to latest events:
Formation of a cross wall
Elongation of the cytoplasmic membrane
Replication of cellular DNA
The key difference between archaea and bacteria is:
Their cell wall composition
Put the following steps of mitosis in order, from earliest to latest events:
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Which of the following bacterial cell structures plays an important role in the bacterias ability to stick to surfaces?
Name three different structures that organisms can use for movement.
Flagella and Cillia
ATP energy is expended in which of the following processes?
membrane formation and secretion
brings food into cells and provides structural support
oxidation of fatty acids, destroys H202
In the process of Catabolism:
They break large molecules into smaller ones
All of the following are true statements concerning enzymes EXCEPT:
They only function at 37ºC (98ºF)
In glycolysis, the beginning and end products (respectively) are:
Glucose, Pyruvic Acid
Chlorophyll is used to capture energy in the:
In microbiology, the term "growth" usually refers to which of the following?
an increase in the number of microbial cells
A cell that uses an organic carbon source and obtains energy from light would be called a
A microbe that grows only at the bottom of a tube of medium is probably a(n)
Halophiles grow well in the presence or absence of high salt concentrations
Chloroplasts use light energy to produce ATP and carbohydrates
There is a net gain of ATP in glycolysis
Glycolysis is more efficient than the alternative pathways available to a cell
During the Electron Transport Chain ATP is used
Fermentation is the optimal way for an organism to process pyruvic acid
Organisms living under extreme pressure are thermophiles
What method would you use in lab to obtain pure culture?
How many ATP are produced during Glycolysis, The Krebs Cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain?
Who disproved spontaneous generation and the technique to heat milk in order to kill bacteria?
Name the different types of Eukaryotes we discussed?
Name as many differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes that you can think of.
What are the byproducts of fermentation?