The systematic and scientific study of human behavior, social groups and society
A measure indicating that two variable are related in such a way that a change in one is accompanied by a change in the other
A statement that interrelates two or more variables.
Categories of people set apart from others because of socially defined physical characteristics.
The learned set of beliefs, values, norms and material goods shared by group members
Opportunities for securing such things as health, education, autonomy, leisure and a long life.
The use of multiple (usually 3) techniques to gather or analyze research date
An economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and goods and service are distributed competitively for profit
A construct that represents ways in which concepts vary or differ
The consistency of a measurement
Expectations and rules for proper conduct that guide people's everyday behaviors
Prohibitions against behaviors that most members of the group consider to be so repugnant that they are unthinkable
The total web of an individual's relationships and group members
The extent to which a technique accurately measures what it purports to measure
Shared ideas about what is socially desirable
Formals rules enacted and enforced by the power of the state, which apply to members of society
A relationship in which a change in one variable creates a concomitant change in another variable
A set of expectations, rights, and duties that are attached to a particular status
A form of inequality in which categories of people are systematically ranked in a hierarchy on the basis of their access to scare by valued resources.
Informal rules and expectations that guide people's everyday behavior
A socially defined position in a social structure
The ordered relationships and patterned expectations that guide social interaction
A definition that specifies how a concept is measured
Defining a concept through the use of other concepts
Salient norms that people consider essential to the proper working of society
Range of Tolerance
A scope of behaviors considered acceptable and defined as conformity
Violation of social norms as opposed to conformity
An abstract idea or general thought
An economic system in which the means of production are owned and controlled by the state and goods and services are distributed as a cooperative enterprise without regard to profit
A large-scale organization that uses rules, hierarchical ranking, and a rational worldview to achieve maximum efficiency
Statuses based on cultural heritage and shared feelings of peoplehood
The ability to see the relationship between the individual and their society
Assertions about the nature or reality
Consumer's desire to express their social standing by acquiring goods and services simply for the purpose of having, displaying, and consuming them
When racial and ethnic groups cooperate while still retaining their distinctive identities and life styles
Institution that deals with power and the flow of power in a society
A process in which minority groups lose their distinctive identities and conform to cultural patterns of the dominant groups
Relatively enduring clusters of values, norms, social statuses, roles and groups that address fundamental social needs
1798-1850. Father of Sociology. Functionalist
Comte's Thesis on Evolution of Knowledge
theological (spirits, gods), metaphysical (observations), and positivism (science).
1820-1903. Functionalist. Organic Analogy. Social Darwinist.
1818 - 1883. Oppression and exploitation. Economic determinist. False consciousness. Social Revolutionary. Conflict theorist
1858-1917. Suicide Study. Functionalist.
Durkheim's Social Solidarity
social bonds developed by individuals to their society create social order.
1864-1920. Value free, insight, bureaucracy, conflict and interactionist
List the 5 steps of the theory building process:
1. identify and define concepts
2. create operational definitions
3. identify relevant variables
4. form propositional statements
What is a Spurious Relationship?
when an apparent relationship between two variables in meaningless
What are the 8 steps of the Scientific Method?
2. lit review
4. research design
5. gather data
6. analyze data
8. pose new questions and publish
Quantitative Research Types
Experiment (independent and dependent variables), survey, control groups
Qualitative Research Types
ethnography, case study, observation
Characteristics of Culture
symbols, language, beliefs, values, norms
What are the 3 Components of Culture?
1. material (symbols)
2. cognitive culture
Claims that something is true for one person but not true for someone else
inconsistencies in a cultural system, especially in the relationship between technology and nonmaterial culture
Cooley's Looking Glass Self
Concept that individuals use others life mirrors and base their conceptions of themselves on what is reflected back to them during social interaction
3 examples of types of adult socialization
reverse socialization (technology), desocialization and resocialization (marriage, transition to college)
According to a Functionalist, Socialization ...
helps us fit in
According to a Conflict Theorist, Socialization...
shapes peoples and benefits the powerful
An interactionist would be interested in what part of socialization?
Total Instituions (ex: bootcamp, deployment, jail, convent, rehab, POW camp, cults, boarding school
Which interactionist studied total institutions extensively?
What is the ideal group size?
5 traits that make up a Bureaucracy?
division of labor, hierarchy, formal rules and procedures, meritocracy (earn), and impersonal
"That's not my job"
work expands to find the time given to do it in
people are often promoted to levels where they are incompetent
Why is deviance subjective?
Deviance is subjective because is depends on who is doing the behavior, where its occurring at, the time is happens, and the culture's subcultural context
the way society goes about enforcing social norms
Names 3 types of social control
Voluntary Social Control, Informal Social Control, and Formal Social Control
What is the most effective type of social control?
According to a Functionalist, Deviance is...
deviance is generally wrong but we tolerate a bit
Manifest Function of Deviance?
deviance that is punished reinforces social norms
Latent Function of Deviance?
entire career field created
What is Value Consensus?
widespread agreement on a group's goals, and the way to achieve them
What is a function?
positive consequence of a part of the whole system
What is a dysfunction?
negative consequence of a part of the whole system
4 ways SES is measured?
income, education, occupation, address
A functionalist would say on Class System that..
it is the best system because is pays accordingly
A latent function of Class System?
role of luck
A manifest function of class system?
provides opportunity for social mobility
How does gender identity develop?
social interaction and socialization
Life expectancy for US
US 78. Female - 80 and Male - 73
What does FICA stand do?
Federal Insurance Contribution Act
FICA tax what percentage of the 1st 105,000 you make?
Which social institution is the oldest?
What would a functionalist agree upon about family?
family is foundation and necessary to a society's survival
Name 3 power and authority patterns within family?
patriarchy, matriarchy, and egalitarian
Name 2 types of marriage
monogamy and polygamy
Name and define 2 subgroups of polygamy
polygny - one male, multiple females
polyandry - one female, multiple males
What 5 points do we select mates in according to homogamy?
age, education, race, religion, and social class
What is the theory of complimentary needs?
we seek out our psychological oppostie
What is the male's goal in mate selection?
What is the female's goal in mate selection?
stability in resources
List ways a school as a bureaucracy is good
specialized subjects/teachers, more offerings, organization, protects the student and teacher
List ways a school as a bureaucracy is bad
less freedom for creativity, impersonal, forced conformity
A functionalists perspective on religion...
religion serves as a number of important function for societies and individuals
manifest function of religion
community and group identity
latent function of religion
raises health, time keeping function
function of religion
emotional support and comfort
dysfunction of religion
ostracism of deviance
what are 3 types of power?
coercion, influence and authority
states forces the people to do something. fear is the motivator. downside - must be vigilant
examples of influence
censorship and propaganda
According to Weber, what are the 3 subcategories of authority power? give an example of each
traditional - kings and queens
legalrational - president
charismatic - Gandhi, Hitler, MLK
How does society order power?
autocracy, where one or few rule, and democracy, where the power lies in the people.
What are two subcategories of democracy?
direct - one person equal one vote - ex: ancient Greece
representative - vote turned over to another - ex: America
What kinds of conditions facilitate democracy?
advanced economy, delusion of power, cultural norms, and access to information
Jus ad bellum
jus ad bello
Vietnam was which kind a "just war". T or F
WWII was which kind of war?
jus ad bellum
Medicine grew from which social institution?
how would a functionalist view medicine?
we want scientific answers to death and disease
manifest function of medicine?
heal thy people, higher life expectancy
function of medicine?
dysfunction of medicine?
latent function of medicine?
"pill popping society" shift in fatih
Parson's Sick Role
acknowledge the label, try to get better, comply with medical authority, excused from normal activities
Conflict theorist views on medicine
against inequality, medicalization (making more things under the medical institution)
what is the US population?
What is the world population?
what 3 factors affect a population?
fertility, mortality and migration
When the the world population break 1 billion?
Latent function of advertising?
ideological support for capitalism
How are the expectations that accompany a job learned?
What are occupational subcultures?
when coworkers share common values, norms and attitudes not just about their job, but about life as well
What is a conflict theorist view on economy?
economic inequality, exploitation and alienation of workers
What is the Value consensus of Economy?
basic social institution which is postive
manifest function of economy?
production, distribution, consumption of goods and services
latent function of economy?
maintenance of social class
function of economy?
helps society funciton
dysfunction of economy?
runaway inflation, recession, depression, unemployment
what are the push and pull factors for immigration and emigration?
family, education, religion, politics, weather, media, economy, medicine, SES, cultural norms
Give an example of communical diseases
AIDs, TB, mumps, flu
Give an example of degenerative diseases
heart disease, cancer, stroke
What age bracket are females generally considered fertile?
Parson's Sick Role is what kind of interactionist view?
What acts define a "just war"?
invasion/attack, protection of "innocents", protection of ways of happiness, presence of clear enemy, pre-emption
What are justified acts in war?
kill enemy soldiers, destroy military targets, don't kill woman, children or civilians, don't destroy schools, hospitals, places of worship. preserve history
What kind of abstract freedoms does democracy promise?
freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly
Defusion of power in democracy means what?
power between social institutions in defused and not linked (family, religion, and gov't are separate)
What cultural norms facilitate democracy?
A conflict theorist views religion as
an institution that numbs the people for the benefit of the elite
Karl Marx said "opiate of the masses" about which social institution and why?
Religion because opiates numb people into peace so they would not revolutionize, which was the main goal of Marx, revolution.
What kind of rituals, beliefs and other forms of civil religion exist in the United States?
hymns - Star Spangled Banner
Oath - Pledge of Allegiance
Writings - Declaration of Independence
Prophets - George Washington, Ben Franklin
Holy City - Washington DC
Symbols - flag, eagle
Holy Places - White House, Capital, Liberty ell, Arlington, Pearl Harbor
Value Consensus on Race and Ethnicity
Harmony can occur within a culture regardless of variations in race and ethnicity
Function of Race and Ethnicity
Dysfunction of race and ethnicity
isolation, stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination
latent function of race and ethnicity
Value Consensus on Education?
education is crucial in determine success/failure in society
manifest function of education?
capable of participating in democracy, self-sufficiency (individualism), transmits the american culture
latent function of eduction?
lessens those who make their way without higher education, higher education bubble, daycare function, peer isolation, social network, dating/mating pool
function of education?
literate population, talent, social mobility
dysfunction of eduction?
less people want to work, lower waged jobs/skilled jobs, money, time consuming
a conflict theorist sees education as...
having a "hide curriculum" with the value of the elite offered to the masses.
a weak, convenient and socially approved target. ex: blacks, muslims, terrorists
prejudice vs discrimination
prejudice is a judgement, discrimination is an act
physical or social exclusion of minority groups from dominant group activities
NAme 4 minority groups in america
hispanic, black, asian, american indian
Sex vs gender
sex is the biological and physical differences between males and females while gender in the cultural understanding of what is masculine and what is feminine
acknowledging one's sex and internalizing the norms, values, and behaviors of the accompanying gender expectation
a blending of masculine and feminine attributes
What are some suggestions for fixes of the social security issue?
up the age, up the tax, drop amount given out, means test, increase birth rate, set limits
Which sociologist did extensive work on ageism?
True or False: the less we age the more we are similar
The Social Security act was created in what year?
Who was social security intended for?
65+ who had worked, the blind, widows with kids, disabled
socially approved economic and sexual relationship that is assumed to be permanent
What are the two nuclear families most will have during their lifetime?
family of origin and family or procreation
a statistical average based on death in a society. It tells all about the society but none about the individual
In 1900, the US's life expectancy was at...
Prehistoric life expectancy was
Value Consensus on Gender
males and females are different and are expected to behave according to their assigned gender
What percent of americans live under the poverty line?
What is the amount of income that declares poverty for a family of four?
give examples of things that are dictated by your social class?
occupation, education, how you are perceived, who your friends are, interactions with police, free time, health, life expectancy, civic participation, family, how you talk, what you wear
The Lower class had better health that the poverty class? True or False
True, poverty class claims medicaid
Who is the father of dramaturgy?
Name 4 ways sociology fits into a liberal education
challenges assumptions, enhances critical thinking skills, globalization, development of the sociological imagination