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taxonomy

a classification of organisms

binomial nomenclature

(linneaus) 2 word naming system; this is the species

genus

Group of closely related species, and the first part of the scientific name in binomial nomenclature

family

larger group than species

order

broader category composed of similar families

class

similar orders

phylum

several different classes

kingdom

large category in classifying organisms; closely related phyla

domain

most inclusive taxonomic category; larger than kingdom

phylogeny

evolutionary relationships microorganisms

bacillus

rod shaped bacteria

coccus

sphere shaped bacteria

spirillum

spiral shaped bacteria

chemoheterotroph

prokaryotes that take in organic molecules for both energy and or carbon

photoheterotroph

using sunlight for energy and need to take in organic compounds as carbon source

photoautotroph

use light energy to convert co2 and h2o to carbon compounds and co2

chemoautotroph

make organic compounds from co2; don't regulate light

obligate anaerobe

organism that doesn't require a constant supply of oxygen

obligate aerobe

an organism that needs oxygen in order to live

facultative anaerobe

an organism that can live with or without oxygen

binary fission

asexual; when prokaryotic cells that double in size, replicate DNA, and divides into 2 daughter cells.

conjunction

form of sexual reproduction in which paramecium and some prokaryotes exchange genetic information

endospore

a structure bacteria form when the environmental conditions become unfavorable

nitrogen fixation

process of converting nitrogen gas to a form plants can use; recycles nitrogen through atmosphere

virus

particle made up of nucleic acid, protein, and in only some cases, lipids that can replicate only by infecting living cells; nonliving

capsid

outer protein coat of a virus

bacteriophage

virus that infects bacteria

lytic infection

inject nucleic acid into a host cell and the host cell bursts and releases 1000s of viruses

lysogenic infection

host cell doesn't burst right away, remains inactive for a short period of time

prophage

the viral DNA that is embedded in the host cell's DNA

retrovirus

virus that contains RNA as its genetic information

pathogen

disease-causing agent

vaccine

a preparation of weakened or killed pathogens

antibiotic

compound that blocks the growth and reproduction of bacteria

viroid

single-stranded RNA molecule that has no surrounding capsids

prion

infectious particle made up of protein rather than RNA or DNA

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