This city was captured in 1453, giving the Ottomans the East Mediterranean.
A "patron" of exploration, his interest in gold and conversions led him to send explorers out on the West coast of Africa. Portuguese
Portuguese, the 1st around the cape of Good Hope (1487), thus finding a water route to India
(Vasco de) Gama
Portuguese, he reached India 1499, landing in Calcutt
He sailed far out to reach India, but landed on Brazil along the way 1500.
narrow open boats, moved by manpower. These used to be good for the mediterranean, but after the black plague there wasn't enough manpower to run them.
small, light, 3-mast sailing ship. Slower than the galley, but held more, was maneuverable, and didn't require as much manpower
He wrote "Mundus Novus" in 1503, which coined "new world", the 1st documment to refer to America as a new continent. He was the namesake of America.
Panning to separate ore from soil. This inefficient mining method was used by the black slaves in the West Indies
A Portuguese man commissioned by Spain to sail around the world to Asia-->the Earth is definitely round, larger than Columbus's estimates.
Conquistador who turned the Aztec empire into "New Spain".
Conquered the Inca Empire, creating "Peru".
These mines in Peru were the best in the New World
the center of European commerce in the middle 15th since the Low Countries were trade crossroads between the Baltic and Italy, and Antwerp was on the Schelt River.
New commerce capital of Europe in the 16th, thanks to the Dutch East India Company
Discovered New Foundland for England
The second man to circumnavigate the globe
began exploring Canada for the French
Founded Quebec City
Named Louisiana after King Louis XIV
Treaty of Tortexillas
In 1493 Spain and Portugal drew a line down the New world. Portugal got the East of the line, while Spain got the Western portion.
discovered New Amsterdam for the Dutch, and claimed much of Canada for England.
An imperial governor in the Spanish New world, also refers to the 4 administrative divisions in Spain's New World (New Spain, Peru, New Granada, La Plata)
the Portuguese versions of viceroys
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
Marked the end of the Hadsburg Valois Wars. Spain got Italy from france. Wars no longer dynastic, but over politics and religion
tax on property and land, provided permanent income for French royal government
nobility of the robe
The tax-exempt class in France whose exemptions and offices were hereditary
St. Medard Church
Here, French Huguenots killed a Catholic baker in 1561, leading to a violent Catholic retaliation
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
On this day in 1572, the marraige of Margaret of Valois and Henry of Navarre (protestant) was supposed to bring peace, but an attack on Coligny (head of Huguenots) by Henry of Guise (Cath) led to a massacre
War of the 3 Henrys
Henry of Guise (Holy League) vs. Henry of Navarre vs. King Henry III (succeeded Charles IX)
Edict of Nantes
in 1598, King Henry IV granted Huguenots protection in certain towns
delegats in the Netherlands from the 17 provinces met here to make important decisions
Council of Blood
This committee set up by the Duke of Alva executed dissidents in the Netherlands, and installed a 10% sales tax
William of Orange (the Silent)
United the provinces 1576
Crushed the revolt of the Netherlands in 1578, taking the South, while the North stayed independent-->Collapse of Antwerp
Union of Utrecht
United the Northern provinces of the Netherlands in 1581, led by Holland. Eventually became known as the United Provinces of the Netherlands
This giant fleet of ships was defeated by the English in 1588-->Spanish defeatism, English nationalists, Phillip II can't unify Europe by force
defenestration of Prague
Ferdinand of Styria (king of Bohemia)'s officials were thrown off a castle, survive. This event in 1618 began the 30 YW
In this phase of the 30 YW from 1618-1625, Ferdinand (catholics) defeated the Protestants, led by Frederick. The most decisive defeat of Frederick was in the Battle of White mountain in 1620.
in the phase from 1625-1629, King Christian IV became involved, and Albert of Wallenstein scored wins for the Catholics but then turned against them changing the war's purpose from religion to greed
Edict of Restitution
This law, passed at the Hadsburgs' peak in 1629, restored confiscated property to Catholics
In this phase from 1630-35, Adolphus (Swedish King) and Richelieu (France) joined the protestants, ending the hope of uniting German states under Hadsburgs
In this indecesive and destructive phase from 1635-1648, Cardinal Richelieu officially joined the fight.
Peace of Westphalia
This treaty dissolved the HRE, recognized the United Provinces of Netherlands, made France and Sweden stronger, kicked the Pope out of German religion, and included Calvinism in the Augsburg agreement of 1555-->German south Catholic, north Protestant.
She became the richest person in England through her acumen in business and marrying rich men.
This moralist scorned prostitution, arguing that men should also service women
hatred of women, common in Western religion b/c women considered weak to the devil and lustful
(Barolome de las) Casas
He suggested that Charles V replace Indians with Blacks as slaves in order to save lives, but this backfired
A skeptic who invented the essay. His most famous essay was "On Cruelty" (cruelty is the worst vice) and "On Cannibals" (no culture superior to another)
This bible in 1611 revised previous bibles, showed the English vernacular and the Anglican wish for laity to read the bible. Royal not ecclesiastical sponsor. aka "King James Bible"
this art, brought about by the Catholic Reformation, was lively and appealed to the senses and souls of commoners. Its agitation appealed to a chatoic age. Must influential artists were Rubens, Bernini, Bach
economic policy where government does all it can to improve country's wealth. The government tries to get a better balance of trade by limiting imports and maximizing exports (believed getting the world's limited gold resources would lead to power)
Spanish Inquisition, public burnings of heretics
1573 mutiny of Philip II's troops in Netherlands
This corrupt bishop was appointed by Phillip II to run the Netherlands' church
Phillip's brother who led a successful naval crusade against the Turks at Lepanto
pacification of Ghent
1573, Netherlands' 17 provinces promise to join until complaints satisfied
act of abjuration
in 1581, this declared independence for the Netherlands
wrote Don Quixote, about a human anachronism