Nutritional Science 5

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Fat is digested more slowly than carbohydrate or protein

True

The term enriched on a food label signifies that ____________

The nutrients in the food were lost during processing and then added back in

Which of the following best describes the glycemic index?

The extent to which a given food raises blood glucose and insulin

Regular physical activity can increase HDL-cholesterol

True

Studies demonstrate that supplements of andostenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone are effective in raising testosterone concentrations in the body

False

The electrically charged particle that assists in maintaining the body's fluid balance is called a/n ___________

Electrolyte

Waist circumference alone can indicate one's risk for chronic disease

True

Lower-body obesity significantly increases one's risk for chronic disease

False

On average, an individual's BMR decreases approximately 3-5% per decade after that reach ________ years of age.

30

The thrifty gene theory suggests that __________

Some people possess a gene that causes them to expend less energy than other people

Which of the following foods contains a large quantity of saturated fatty acids

Palm Kernel and Coconut Oils

The amount of ATP that can be produced in glycolysis can maintain exercise for no more than _____ minutes

3

Which of the following is not a side effect of carb loading?

Improved performance

Which of the following is not a reason fat becomes an energy source for trained athletes?

Replaces carbs as an energy source during prolonged, intense training

Placing an extra physical demand on the body to improve the fitness level is called the ______________ principle

Overload

The energy we expend just to maintain our resting functions, such as respiration and circulation is the _________ metabolic rate

Basal

A complete protein ________

Contains all 9 essential amino acids

Vegetarian diets are associated with increased consumption of ____________

Antioxidants

Which of the following is true regarding type 1 diabetes?

Because individuals do not produce any insulin, treatment always involves insulin therapy

The majority of carbohydrate digestion and absorption occurs in the _______ intestine

Small

The most common sterol in our diet is ___________

Cholesterol

A type of protein energy malnutrition that results from a short term deficiency of protein is _______________

Kwashiorkor

The _________ load of a food is determined by the grams of carbs it contains multiplied by its glycemic index

Glycemic

The best way to treat sports anemia is with iron supplements

False

The _______ to hip ratio is useful to assess one's fat distribution pattern and future chronic disease risk

Waist

Which of the following would not be good advice for Mrs.Clancy? Regarding increasing fiber content

Add additional fiber by taking fiber supplements each day

A diet high in simple sugars has been shown to increase both triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood

True

People attempting to lose weight will be most successful if they limit their consumption of fat to less than 15% of kilocalories

False

A _________ fatty acid contains one double bond between two carbon atoms along the chain

Monounsaturated

Serotonin and cholecystokinin increase satiety in humans

True

The majority of obese people have a depressed basal metabolic rate

False

The hearts, lungs and circulatory system working together to supply oxygen and nutrients to working muscles is referred to as: the _______ system

Cardiorespiratory

What is the cause of sports anemia?

Increased plasma volume due to training

Physical activity not related to a person's occupation is defined as ____________

Leisure-time physical activity

About 5 to _____ percent of our total energy output is attributable to the thermic effect of food

10

Basal functions include all of the following except

Walking up stairs

Essential amino acids are more important to the human body than nonessential amino acids

False

The primary determinant of basal metabolic rate is an individual's _____________

Lean Body Mass

Which of the following is false about Peptide YY, sometimes called PYY

Occurs in higher levels in obese people

Eating small frequent meals throughout the day is called __________

Grazing

Which of the following is not associated with type 2 diabetes?

Autoimmune disease

Lipids that contain multiple carbon-ring structures are ________

Sterols

When a phosphate group is cleaved from ATP, energy is released.

True

The longer the fatty acid chain, the more ATP can be generated from breakdown

True

Gluconeogenesis is

The synthesis of new glucose from amino acids

Alkalosis is a condition in which the pH of the blood becomes too basic

True

The process in which a protein loses its shape and function when exposed to acids, heat, and heavy metal is _______________

Denaturation

The enzyme _________ amylase is responsible for carbohydrate digestion in the mouth

Salivary

The body mass index is a measurement used to determine a person's body composition

False

Pear shaped fat patterning is more common in men than in women

False

Hypogylcemia is seen only in people with type 1 diabetes

False

Being underweight does NOT increase a person's risk of developing

Infection and illness

Which of the following does not define a healthy body weight?

A weight that is acceptable to society

In men, a waist to hip ratio higher than ________ is associated with an increased risk for chronic disease

.90

The storage form of glucose in animals is ________________

Glycogen

Fat is the most energy dense of all the macronutrients

True

In phenylketonuria (PKA) what amino acid becomes conditionally essential?

Tyrosine

The human body cannot store glycogen during the first 24 hours of recovery from intense exercise

False

Diets high in ________ and trans fatty acids contribute to chronic diseases, including heart disease and cancer

Saturated

The BMI is calculated by taking an individuals body weight (in kilograms) divided by their height^2 (in meters)

False

To achieve moderate intensity physical activity, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a target heart rate of between 50 to ______ percent of an individuals maximal heart rate

70

Marco wants to improve his cardiorespiratory fitness. Which type of activity would be the most effective to achieve this goal?

Aerobics class three times a week

Which of the following would be the best indicator that he is not consuming adequate kilocalories?

He is losing weight

Which of the following statements is true about trans fatty acids?

They are created during the hydrogenation process

The vast majority of fat digestion and absorption occurs in the _______________

Small Intestine

Chemical bonds in which the amine group of one amino acid binds to the acid group of another amino acid are _____ bonds

Peptide

In type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease may destroy the ____________

Insulin producing cells of the pancreas

The FIT principle considers three factors in achieving an appropriate overload for physical training: ____________, intensity, and time

Frequency

The positively charged electrolyte concentrated inside the cell is potassium and the positively charged electrolyte concentrated outside the cell is __________

Sodium

People trying to gain weight should eat most of their kilocalories from carbs

True

In the body, buffers are very important in ___________

Maintaining acid base balance in the body

Carbohydrate digestion ceases in the stomach because the pH of the stomach inactivates salivary amylase

True

A ________ reaction occurs in the absence of oxygen

Anaerobic

Some athletes believe that caffeine can enhance athletic performance because it has been shown to

Increase the use of fatty acids as a fuel source

Which of the following best describes Dr.Barry Sears' The Zone Diet

High protein diet designed for competitive athletes

Some athletes believe that caffeine can enhance athletic performance because it has been shown to

Increase the use of fatty acids as a fuel source

The institute of medicine recommends a minimum of ________ minutes of physical activity each day for adults

60

During exercise, which of the following triggers the breakdown of stored fat?

Adrenaline

Which of the following is an example of a soluble fiber?

Pectins

Which of the following are substances in plant foods that are not absorbed by the body?

Dietary Fiber

Lipids with a glycerol backbone and two fatty acids with a phosphate group are _________

Phospholipids

The Tolerable Upper Intake Level for sugar is 300 grams a day

False

What is meant by the overload principle?

Improving fitness by placing extra physical demand on the body

If she weighs 132 lbs, how many grams of carbs should she consume to achieve this goal?

360-600

In which of the following types of exercise would CP (creatine phosphate) be an important source of energy?

Sprinting in the 100-meter race

The label of ready to eat cereal box indicates that 1 cup contains 32 grams of carbs, 4 grams of protein, and 2 grams of fat. How many kcals are there in two cups of this cereal?

324 kcals

Which of the following correctly describes the energy balance equation?

Energy consumed equals energy expended

Which artificial sweetener was almost banned because of a proposed relationship with bladder cancer in experimental animals?

Saccharin

Meat is not a good dietary source of glycogen. Why?

Most of the glycogen found in meat is broken down when the animal is slaughtered

The breakdown of glucose to provide quick energy to the body is called _____________

Glycolysis

Which part of an individual amino acid distinguishes it from other amino acids?

Side chain

To stay healthy, athletes should consume less than 15% of their kcals from fat

False

A ______ fatty acid has hydrogen atoms located on the same side of the double bond in an unsaturated fatty acid

Cis

Excellent sources of protein, _________ include foods such as kidney beans, pinto beans, black beans, soybeans, lentils and chickpeas

Legumes

The top of the Physical Activity Pyramid emphasizes activities that _______

We should do less of, such as watching TV

Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions without being physically altered

True

By detecting and responding to the body's physiological signals, the _________ is the part of the body in control of hunger regulation.

Hypothalamus

Eating large amounts of sugar can temporarily cause diabetes

False

How many grams of carbs (per day_ are recommended to prevent ketosis in healthy individuals (RDA)?

130 grams

Which of the following is not a reason fat becomes an energy source for trained athletes?

Replaces carbs as an energy source during prolonged, intense training.

Which of the following BEST describes how ATP provides energy to the body's cells?

Energy is released when a phosphate group is cleaved from the ATP molecule.

Muscle Tissue contains enough creatine phosphate (CP) to sustain physical activity for up to 10-15 minutes

False

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the metabolic syndrome?

Osteoporosis

A/n ______ food is one in which nutrients are added that did not originally exist in that food.

Fortified

Which of the following is a fat replacer?

Olestra

To achieve cardiorespiratory fitness, you should train more than ______ days per week

2

EPA and DHA are metabolic derivatives of ______________

Alpha-Linolenic acid

Glycogen is not a good source of dietary carbohydrates

True

Which of the following individuals would most likely have the lowest basal metabolic rate?

A 28 year old overweight woman

Plant fats provide 80-90% of their energy from saturated fats

False

Which of the following carbs is the end produce of photosynthesis?

Glucose

What is the major monosaccharide found in the body?

Glucose

What element makes protein different from carbs and fat?

Nitrogen

Insulin cannot be taken orally. Why?

Insulin is a protein and would be broken down by the human digestive tract if taken orally

Heat producing brown adipose tissue containing uncoupling proteins has been found only in animals and newborn humans

False

Defensive proteins that protect the body from viruses, toxins, allergens, and bacteria are _____________.

Antibodies

The type of vegetarian who eats vegetables, grains, fruits, eggs and milk but excludes all other types of animal protein is called a _____________

Lacto-ovo vegetarian

Which nutrient requires the least amount of energy to digest, transport and store?

Fat

As they are not digested in humans, resistant starches are harmful to the colon

False

Fatty acid molecules provide much of the energy for

Long term activity such as walking

A _______ fatty acid contains one double bond between two carbon atoms along the chain

Monounsaturated

Under normal physiological conditions, every cell of the body is capable of making each type of protein needed by the body

False

Over secretion of the hormone leptin will result in weight gain

False

When consumed, a high glycemic index food can cause a sudden rise in blood glucose levels

True

Which of the following is not one of the physiological effects of regular physical activity?

Decreases high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL)

During exercise what source is/are used by the body for glucose?

Glycogen stored in skeletal muscles

The primary way the body loses heat is through _________ cooling, or swearing

Evaporative

The three components of total energy expenditure include _____________

Basal metabolic rate, physical activity and the thermic effect of food

The amount of energy expended by the body in digesting, absorbing, transporting, metabolizing, and storing nutrients is called ________

The thermic effect of food

Fat is digested more slowly than carbs or protein

True

All of the following are examples of amino acid containing hormones except

Testosterone

Which of the following hormones is released when your blood sugar is too high?

Insulin

Which of the following fatty acids is generally solid at room temperature?

Saturated

A ________ fatty acid contains one double bond between two carbon atoms along the chain

Monounsaturated

What type of weight loss will an individual experience by restricting calories but not increasing his or her level of physical activity?

The individual will lose mostly lean body tissue

Ketones are produced for energy when fat is broken down because __________ intake is insufficient

Carbohydrate

Which of the following is a monosaccharide?

Galactose

Insulin is synthesized and released by the

Pancreas

The currency of energy for the cells is ______

ATP

Which of the following proteins are fundamental to the immune system?

Antibodies

A deficiency of protein can lead to a condition called ______ in which fluid accumulates in the body's tissue spaces

Edema

Research has shown that aspartame promotes the development of Alzheimer's disease

False

An apple shaped fat pattern increases a person's risk for _________ disease

Heart

Ghrelin is _________

A gastric protein that stimulates appetite

Saturated fats are typically liquid at room temperature

False

Which of the following statements is false about sterols?

Sterols contain a glycerol backbone and one fatty acid

Conduction of nerve signals and contraction of muscles depends on the proper balance of __________

Electrolytes

The ability to move a joint through its full range of motion is ___________

Flexibility

Triglycerides, Phospholipids, and Sterols are the three types of __________

Lipids

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