What is connective tissue important for?
support and protection
What are the four subclasses of connective tissue?
connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, and blood
arise from mesechyme
degree of vascularity
range from no blood vessels to rich supply
much of the connective tissue is made of nonliving extracellular matrix
How does extracellular matrix support tissue?
it seperates living cells in the tissue and allows connective tissue to bear great weight and tension and withstand abuse
What are three major components of connective tissue?
ground substance, fibers, and cells
What makes up the extracellular matrix?
ground substance and fibers
What does ground substance do?
fills the space between the living cells of a connective tissue and holds fluid and acts as a fluid medium for diffusion from blood vessels to occur
What is the structure of ground substance
unstructured and gel like
What is ground substance made out of?
interstial fluid, cell adhesion proteins, and proteoglycans
What are cell adhesion proteins?
acts as a glue to hold living cells to a matrix
What are proteoglycans?
substances that contain polysaccharides known as GAGs, the more GAGs in the matrix, the stiffer it is
What does ground substance hold?
What do fibers do?
What are the three types of fibers?
collagen fibers, elastic fibers, reticular fiber
most abundant, form fibers in extracelluar matrix, very TOUGH and STRONG
formed from protein elastin STRETCHY allows stretching of connective tissue like in skin, llungs, and blood vessel walls
delicate fibers of collagen, provides support for soft tissue
each type of connective tissue hold fundamental cell type, immature and growing they secrete ground substances and fibers and divide rapidl, the "blast" stage
connective tissue proper
hemocytoblast (always activ)
fat cells in connective tissue
white blood cells, plasma cells, mast cells, macrophage
detect foreign substances, release substances to initiate inflmattory respons
large phagocytic cells, eat bacteria, dust, dead tissue cells, main players in immune system
what are the differences in the different types of connective tissue
cell types, fiber types, and proportion of extracellular matrix
what do all connective tissue have in common?
mesemchyme, as embryo develops, mesemchyme cells differentiate into different types of connective tissue
connective tissue proper
all connective tissue belongs to this except bone cartilage and blood
what are the two subclasses of connective tissue proper
loos connective tissue and dense connective tissue
what are the three types of loose connective tissue
they have few fibers; areolar, adipose, and reticular
what are the types of dense connective tissue
packed with fibers; dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic
what are the cells called in areolar connective tissue
what does areolar connective tissue serves as
packaging materian for organs and other tissues, holds water, and soaks up excess fluid in inflamed areas, and caused swelling edema
basically areolar connective where the nutrients storing function is greatly enhanced, fat cells called adipocytes present, every cell stores a nutrient rich oild droplet,
what percentage of an average person is fat cells
reticular connective tissue
reticular fibers are present
what do the fibers in reticular connective tissue form
delicate network called stromma in the spleen and lymph nodes which support free blood cells in these structures
lots of collagen fibers, giving great resistance to tension, fibers run in one direction
which type of dense connective tissue forms tendons and ligaments
bones to muscles
bone to bone
ligaments containg lots of elastic fivers, stretch
dense irregular connective tissue
fibers arranged irregulary, not all in one direction