Organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds.
Organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.
Animals and other organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight or inorganic substances.
First stage of photosynthesis, the process when plants capture and store energy from sunlight. (light to chemical energy)
(In stroma) Sugar is made using carbon dioxide and the products of light-dependent reactions (ATP and NADPH) and other various chemicals (calvin cycle).
The biochemical process by which green plants and some bacteria capture light energy and use it to produce chemical bonds. Carbon dioxide and water are consumed while oxygen and simple sugars are produced.
Each cluster of pigment molecules and the proteins that the pigments molecules are embedded in. A unit of several hundred chlorophyll molecules and carotenoid migment molecules in the thylakoid membrane.
Primary Electron Acceptor
A specialized molecule sharing the reaction center with the pair of reaction-center chlorophyll a molecules; it accepts an electron from one of these two chlorophylls.
A membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis.
A pigment that absorbs light energy and transfers energy to chlorophyll a in photosynthesis
Adenosine diphosphate - a substance involved in energy metabolism formed by the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate
A series of chemical reactions in which the product of one reaction is consumed in the next reaction
Plant that utilizes C3 carbon fixation pathway to convert CO2 into organic compounds; CO2 is first fixed into a compound containing C3 before entering the Calvin Cycle.
It helps in photosynthesis by absorbing light energy and it is more soluble than chlorophyll a because of its carbonyl group. Its color is green.
Crassulacean acid metabolism; a biochemical pathway in certain plants in which CO2 is incorporated into organic acids at night and released for fixation in the Calvin cycle during the day
A process in chloroplasts and mitochondria in which the movement of protons down their concentration gradient across a membrane is coupled to the synthesis of ATP
A class of light-absorbing pigments used in photosynthesis, a ny of a group of green pigments found in the thylakoids of the Chloroplasts.
Electron Transport Chain
Molecules in the thylakoid membrane or inner mitochondrial membrane that use some of the energy in electrons to pump protons across the membrane in a series of chain reactions. They transfer electrons from molecule to molecule in a chain.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucloeotide phosphate; an organic molecule that accepts eletrons during redox reactions
Glyceraldehyde phosphate; a three-carbon molecule formed in the second step of the Calvin cycle that can leave the cycle and be used to make other organic compounds
STEP 1: Calvin Cycle
Rubisco attaches the carbon atom to CO2 to RuBP, which starts the cycle; this compound forms from splitting of an intermediate compound.
STEP 2: Calvin Cycle
PGA gets phosphate groups from ATP, priming them for synthesis reactions that regenerate RuBP.
STEP 2: Stomata Opening
Protein channels told to actively transport potassium ions into guard cells (creates hypotonic solution)
STEP 3: Stomata Opening
Water passively rushes into the guard cells, causing them to swell and that causes the stomata to open
STEP 1: Photosynthesis
Light Reactions: converts solar energy into potential energy. (light-dependent)
- Photosystems 1 and 2