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Reconstruction

A process in which an area tries to restore itself after a downfall

Amnesty

An official or governmental pardon for people who have been found guilty of political crimes.

10 percent plan

A plan by Abraham Lincoln that would help restore the South by allowing a southern state to rejoin the union if at least 10% of it's voters swore loyalty to the union and if slavery were abolished. The plan also gave amnesty to some southerners.

Wade-Davis Bill

An alternative to the 10% plan proposed by the Republicans requiring a majority vote instead of just 10% and denying voting or office rights to confederate volunteers.

Freedman's Bureau

A US government agency that helped former slaves and poor whites. The agency gave former slaves clothes and food. If you were a freedman, then it would try to find a job for you. The agency also would supply medical care for those people and set up a great public school system.

13th Amendment

The Amendment that banned slavery in the entire country. It was part of Johnson's plan and followed the Emancipation Proclamation.

Problems for the North after the Civil War

Even though the bad economy was only temporary, there were not a lot of jobs available for returning soldiers.

Problems for the South after the Civil War

Most of the battles took place in the south and areas of land were destroyed. The Southern economy did not work anymore. Also, the financial system was a mess with Confederate money being valueless and lenders not getting repaid. Since slaves and freedmen could finally learn how to read and write, almost four million people competed for jobs and property.

Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction Plan

Required a majority vote of loyalty for a state to rejoin the union and also required ratification of the 13th Amendment, which banned slavery across the nation. This went beyond the Emancipation proclamation, which only banned slavery in the south.

South's reaction to Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction Plan

To accept it

North's reaction to Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction Plan

Anger because some Confederate leaders were becoming part of the US government and the southern states were not letting former slaves vote.

Black Codes

gave freedmen certain rights, but their intent was to keep the former slaves in a dependent position and give planters a supply of cheap labor

Radical Republicans

members of congress who wanted a stronger reconstruction program especially aimed to the south.

14th Amendment

Declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.

Impeachment

Charge someone in office with improper behavior

15th Amendment

citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude

Radical Republicans' reaction to black codes

They were upset about the black codes because they kept rights away from African Americans.

Radical Republicans' goals for the south

get basic political rights for African Americans in the south. this included equal protection, no discrimination, and the right to vote.

Reasons for a President's impeachment

treason, (betrayal) bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Reconstruction Act of 1867

a.) put the South under military rule b.) Ordered states to hold new elections for deleagates to creat new state constitutions c.) Required all states to allow all qualified male voters to vote in elections d.) Barred those who supported the Confederacy from voting. e.) Required southern states to guarante

Scalawags

southern whites who supported republican policy throught reconstruction

Carpetbaggers

northern whites who moved to the south and served as republican leaders during reconstruction

Conservatives

Like to stick to the traditional ways of government and tend to oppose change

Ku Klux Klan

White supremacy organization that intimidated blacks out of their newly found liberties

Sharecropping

system in which landowners leased a few acres of land to farmworkers in return for a portion of their crops

Poll Tax

a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote

Literacy Test

A test administered as a precondition for voting, often used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.

Grandfather Clause

a voting restriction that allowed any man to vote if he had an ancestor in the voting rolls in 1867

Segregation

a social system that provides separate facilities for minority groups

Jim Crow Laws

The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965

Plessy v. Ferguson

court case where the Supreme Court ruled that segregation is constitutional if it was "separate but equal" After its decision, laws segregating African Americans and white spread quickly. These laws were "Jim Crow" laws and they segregated buses, schools, trains, restaurants, swimming pools, parks, and other public facilities. Brown v Board of Ed overturned this ruling.

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