Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer. Somatic Cell is isolated and the nucleus is transferred to an egg cell where the nucleus has been removed. Chemical Tweaks ---> egg cell with new nucleus behave like a fertilized zygote. Develops into an embryo and is carried by a surrogate mother and delivered.
using SCNT to create a blastocyst whose ICM (inner cell mass) contain pluripotent stem cells that can be used to create exact tissue matches for a patient. No surrogate is necessary since the cloned pre-embryo is only allowed to develop for 6-7 days before it's ICM is extracted and the stem cells used to create tissues or organs.
making a full living copy of an organism; requires a surrogate mother for any organism that develops in a womb.
an undifferentiated cell that will divide and differentiate to become a specialized cell.
*All 220 cell types in the human body "stem" from stem cells.
the process in which a undifferentiated stem cell has specific genes activated which allows the cell to become specialized (aka differentiated)
cell that is uniquely suited to performing a particular function
Stage of embryonic development occuring 6-7 days after fertilization, desired stage for embryonic stem cell research, the embryonic stage occuring at the time of implantation, stage at which IVF embryos are frozen and stored, Contains trophoblast (becomes the placenta) and the inner cell mass (pluripotent stem cells that will become the embryo if implantation occurs).
Inner cell mass, cluster of cells located at one side of the trophoblast
these cells can differentiate and become any type of cell in the body and will also give rise to the placenta. These are found only in early embryos from the zygote to the 8 cell stage........not used in research...behave unpredictably
these cells can differentiate and become most types of cells in body. These cells are the desired stage for embryonic stem cell research. Most pluripotent stem cells come from left-over IVF blastocysts but may be created by therapeutic cloning or IPS cell development...... IVF left-overs, therapeutic cloning (not accomplished yet), IPSC's
these cells can differentiate and become a very limited number of cell types. They are found in late stage fetuses, the umbilical cord, and throughout the human body..... fetuses, umbilical cord, placenta, in various locations throughout the adult human body
outer ring- trophoblast, Inside cells- ICM, extra space- blastocyst cavity
1-8 weeks after implantation
after the 8th week untill birht
first cloned mammal cloned from adult cell SCNt
three types of artificial cloning
therapeutic, reproductive, artificial twinning
totipotent 1st few cell division
5-7 days after fertilization, pluipotent
becomes embryo where stem cells are
Come from IVF or therapeutic cloning
Desired stage for embryonic stem cell resarch
Adult Stem Cells
multipotent ex blood stem cells
induced pluripotent stem cells created from dedifferentiation
most common method fro cloning
SCNT (somatic cell nuclear transfer)
Advantage of therapeutic cloning
creats tissue that are geneticlally identical to patient. Therefore no fear of organ rejection
beleive cloning is a ways to eternal life
Is a surrogate mother necessay for therapeutic cloning?
2001 bush restricted federal funding for embryonic stem cell research
2009 obama recerses the Bush Decision
Choices for IVF left overs
discard, donate, put up for adoption or in the freezer
converting a non-stem cell (a somatic cell) directly into the desired cell type