Psychology Test 5

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When she was 8 years old, Inge was sexually abused by her uncle. At 14, Inge felt uncomfortable whenever she saw this uncle but was unable to understand why she felt this way. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that Inge is using the defense mechanism of

repression.

Arjean's opinions are so dependent on what her friends think that she will swallow just about anything they tell her. Freud would have suggested that Arjean demonstrates a

fixation.

Prior to his use of free association, Freud had encouraged patients to retrieve their forgotten memories by means of

hypnosis.

People who cheat on their taxes are especially likely to think many others do as well. This false consensus effect is most similar to Freud's concept of

projection.

Freud referred to a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage as

fixation.

Carl Rogers suggested that ________ is(are) a central feature of personality.

the self-concept

Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as

unconditional positive regard.

Jin is searching for a sense of purpose in life that goes beyond fulfilling her own potential for growth and self-actualization. According to Maslow, Jin is striving for

self-transcendence.

According to Maslow, the desire to fulfill one's potential is the motivation for

self-actualization.

Which theorist emphasized that an individual's personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic?

Rogers

The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as

the Barnum effect

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a(n)

empirically derived and objective personality test.

Which of the following tests was empirically derived?

MMPI

A major criticism of trait theory is that it

overestimates the consistency of behavior in different situations.

Laura fails to recognize any connection between her unsafe sexual practices and the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted infection. Laura's lack of perceptiveness best illustrates the dangers of

an external locus of control.

Projection refers to the process by which people

disguise unacceptable, unconscious impulses by attributing them to others.

According to Freud, the unconscious is

the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware.

Mary enjoys socializing with friends and talking with them on her cellphone. Eileen prefers quiet times by herself when she can reflect on her own thoughts. The characteristics of Mary and Eileen indicate that each has a distinctive

personality.

Which of the following Freudian ideas is most clearly contradicted by contemporary psychological theory and research?

Painful experiences are commonly repressed.

The major reason for criticism of the Rorschach test is that

only a few of the many Rorschach-derived scores have demonstrated validity.

Which theorist emphasized that an individual's personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic?

Rogers

Wanda wishes to instill in her children an accepting attitude toward other people. Maslow and Rogers would probably recommend that she

teach her children first to accept themselves.

Which personality theorists have been criticized the most for encouraging individual selfishness and self-indulgence?

humanistic theorists

Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are LEAST likely to be highly

conforming.

Lamont has frequently been rebellious, inconsiderate, and self-centered, yet the pastor of his local church has always accepted and respected him. The pastor's attitude toward Lamont is most explicitly recommended by

Rogers.

A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of

conscientiousness.

In the short run, after exercising self-control, people are ________ able to maintain self-control. In the long run, their self-control is ________.

less; strengthened

A frontal lobe area involved in ________ is ________ active in extraverts than in introverts.

restraining behavior; less

A highly anxious and insecure personality illustrates the Big Five trait dimension of

neuroticism.

With regard to personality, it appears that

there is little consistency of behavior from one situation to the next but significant consistency of traits over the life span

For several months after he lost the job he had held for nearly 20 years, Mr. Ullomi frequently lost his temper and suffered periodic crying spells. His behavior is most clearly an example of

regression.

Parents who disguise hostility toward their children by becoming overly protective of them are very likely using the defense mechanism of

reaction formation.

Which of the following techniques did Freud use to discover the latent content of his patients' dreams?

free association

Freud believed that certain troubling symptoms could be traced to painful unconscious memories. This led him to suspect that these symptoms resulted from

psychological processes.

The Oedipus complex is the term used by Freud to describe

boys' feelings of guilt and fear of punishment over their sexual desire for their mother.

For humanistic psychologists, many of our behaviors and perceptions are ultimately shaped by whether our ________ is ________ or ________.

self-concept; positive; negative

Morris is hostile, aggressive, and socially destructive. According to Carl Rogers, this behavior pattern results from

his growth-inhibiting environment.

Lamont has frequently been rebellious, inconsiderate, and self-centered, yet the pastor of his local church has always accepted and respected him. The pastor's attitude toward Lamont is most explicitly recommended by

Rogers.

Which theorist emphasized that an individual's personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic?

Rogers

The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of

self-determination.

Within the framework of Bandura's reciprocal determinism, an external locus of control refers to a(n)

cognitive factor.

Students who perceive that their low test scores are due to their own lack of ability best illustrate

a pessimistic attributional style.

The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as

the Barnum effect.

Most late adolescents perceive themselves as much less vulnerable than their peers to the AIDS virus. This best illustrates

unrealistic optimism.

Trait theorists would be most likely to highlight the impact of our biologically inherited ________ on personality.

temperament

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