Islamic art exam 1 makhoul

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ch. 1-4

• The Quran:

recitation
-qarah: to recite
-114 surahs, chapters

• Surahs:

chapter, 114 in Quran

Makkan surahs

with ethical and spiritual teachings of the Day of Judgment

Medini surahs

deal with social legislation

• Hijrah

flight, emigration
-to Yathrib in 622 CE
-started the Islamic Calendar

• Masjid:

a place to pray

• The five pillars of Islam

1. Shahadah: profession of faith
-2. Prayer: salah
-3. Zakat: fee on property, wealth
-4. Sawm: fasting
-5. Hajj

• Sasanian:

a Persian empire, centered at the capitol Ctesiphon, Zoroastrian
-Persia and central Asia, 224-651 CE
-on the Tigris river is capitol
-economy based on silver
-used reliefs

• Iwan:

a barrel vaulted portal walled on three sides with one opening into a courtyard

• Byzantine period

eastern extension of roman empire and is Christian and capitol is Constantinople from 4th century
-315-750
-Golden ages, Middle Byzantine, Late Byzantine
-Basilica-plan and central plan churches
-Greek cross and Latin cross (not equal)

• Coptic art

Christian art in the upper Nile valley of Egypt
-descendants of ancient Egyptians and Christians, stopped in 640-642
-reflects late antiquity, Byzantine, and Mesopotamia

• Jewish:

religion of Jews, descendants from Hebrews
-in 2nd and 3rd century, relaxed about rule of not making images
-biblical scenes, used characteristics from new eastern, classical, and roman art

• Early caliphs

Abu Bakr, Omar ibn Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan, ali ibn Abi Talib

Abu Bakr

632-634: father of prophets wife

Umar:

634-644: expanded Islamic empire

Uthman

(644-656) - Umayyad clan, killed by fellow Muslims

-Ali

656-661: followers were Shiites

• Prophet Muhammad

: born in Mecca 570-632
-Al-Amin (the trusted one)
-became messenger on Lay lat ul qadr

• Hypostyle hall:

building in which roof or ceiling is supported by closely spaced rows of columns

• Umayyad dynasty:

661-750
-ruled from ruled from Damascus and till India, North Africa, and Spain
-invested in agricultural installations
-built monumental buildings as propaganda

• Dome of the Rock

(691-692):
-built by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, on site of old Jewish temple which was broken down
-tile work is Ottoman, built by Umayyad

reasons for building dome of the rock

-1. To commemorate night journey (no writing proof)
-2. To replace Kaaba (no writing proof)
-3. To advertise Islam in the city

• Centrally planned mosque

: a structure designed with a primary central space surrounded by symmetrical areas from each side

• Jerusalem

holy to all three religions

• The great mosque of Damascus

707-715
-built by Umayyad caliph: al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik

• Hypostyle Mosque

mosques have a square/rectangular plan with an enclosed courtyard and a covered hypostyle prayer hall

• Hypostyle Hall

a hall with a roof supported by closely spaced columns

• Umayyad Desert palaces:

economic: estates in agricultural development projects
-geographical: small fortified towns
-social: rest spots

• Khirbat al-Mafjar

complex of a two story square enclosure with palace, mosque, bath, basement
-unified with a fountain, mosque is rectangular hypostyle hall
-large fancy bath, hammam
-Byzantine and Sasanian influence

• The Abbasids

750-1258
-reigned until Mongol invasion
-First caliph: Abu al-Abbas as-saffah (the butcher)
-capital was first raqqah
-2nd caliph: abu jaffar al mansour, moved capital to Baghdad

• Baghdad

madinat al salam, city of peace
-round city, mud brick walls

• Samarra:

new capital of Abbasids by al-mu'tassim in 836
-on Tigris river

• Pointed Arch:

forming each side of the arch from a different center point, the greater the distance between two points, the sharper the point

• Fresco painting

method of wall painting in which water-based pigments are applied to lime plaster

• Mosque of Mutawakkil

848-852, Samarra, Iraq
-is fortified
-has a minaret,

• Samarra stucco A

: vine-leaf ornament that has resemblance to Hellenistic origin

• Samarra stucco C:

molded pattern, abstract and vegetal and geometric motifs, in borders

• Samarra stucco B

vegetation with some abstract

• Tulunid Dynasty:

868-905
-First local dynasty of Egypt and Syria to exist independently of Abbasid caliphate
-founded by Ahmad ibn tulun, rose from slavery to a governor

• Cairo

contains the city of Fostat
-has the mosque of ibn tulun

• Mosque of ibn tulun

870-879
-built by Ahmad ibn tulun
-hypostyle hall

elements of a mosque:

qibla, mihrab, minbar, minaret, wudu area, prayer hall

Qibla

direction of Mecca, prime factor, marked with a mihrab

Mihrab

niche or marker used to indicate direction of prayer

Minbar:

pulpit of imams to give khutbahs

Minaret

place where muadhin calls adhan

Ablution fountain:

where Muslim makes wudu

Hypostyle prayer hall

roofed structure supported by columns

• Aghlabid Dynasty

800-909
-Tunisia and eastern Algeria, Banu al-aghlab, capital is al Qayruwan

great mosque of Qayrawan

856-863
-originally built in 7th Ce, rebuilt in 9th century

• Fustat:

capital of the Tulunid dynasty
-founded in 641 along the east bank of Nile river

• Jericho

in Palestine
-Khirbat al-Mafjar
-Palestine

• Arabic calligraphy

the art of beautiful or elegant handwriting by formatting letters
-written from right to left, Semitic
-28 alphabets,
-17 characters, w/o dots
-made of root letters

• Hijazi Script

ma'il/slanted form
-no vowel markers
-vertical form and one of earliest

• Kufi script

script of kufa
-square and angular
-heavy and bold style
-thick, unslanted letters

• Nashki script:

cursive script based on certain laws governing the proportion between the letters

• The styles of Arabic calligraphy:

Kufi (old Kufi and ornamented geometric Kufi)
-Thuluth
-Diwani and Diwani Djeli (ottoman)
-Persian
-Ruqaa
-Maghrebi

• Harakat

fathah, dammah...shaddah

• Chapter heading from surat al kahf

- Chapter 18
-9th-10th century
-ink and gold on parchment

• Parchment (animal skin) while vellum( calfskin or fine parchment) is horizontal type

paper replaced parchment in year 1000

• Umayyad coinage:

the reworking old ideas, sasanid and Byzantine in new contexts

Sasanian coins were silver

one side was head of ruler, and other was altar with flame
-Byzantine coins were gold,

• Silk road

an ancient network of trade routes across the Asian continent connecting east, south, and western Asia with Mediterranean world including north Africa and Europe

• Muhammad placing black stone in his cloak

Jami al Tarawikh. From al tabri 1315

Govt controlled factories tiraz

made cloths for court and officials as gifts
-used as ceremonial robes, altar cloths and wraps

• Tapestry

a heavy textile with a woven design; used for curtains and upholstery

• Weaving

is interlocking vertical and horizontal threads of a fiber craft

• Warp:

vertical threads of a weave, yarn arranged lengthways on a loom

• Weft:

horizontal threads known as woofs

• Loom

machine for weaving thread or yarn into clothing/rugs

• Jami al Tarawikh

universal history

• Zandaji fragment textile:

-associated with relics of St. Amon, toul cathedra, France
-a compound twill with beiege/ vertical
-facing lions/palm trees
-Uzbekistan

• Tapestry showing the victorious emperor

Egypt, 8th century
-has 2 war prisoners
-wool and linen

• Rashid al din

made 4 volumes, universal history books

• Embroidery , known as tiraz,

were made in workshops and given to his court

• The arts of fire

ceramics, glass, metalwork since they are transformed by fire

• Glass

made by fusing silica/sand/quartz and lime at high temperatures, 1100C
-minerals added to make color
-First glass made by Egyptians and Mesopotamian in 2000bc

• Glass blowing

inflates the liquid glass into a bubble/sphere with aid of a blow tube
-found between 27bce and 14ce
-creates thinner walls

• Glass bottle with relief cut decoration:

-decoration in green overlay; by cutting away outer layer except where decoration was
-found in nashipur Iran with stylized birds and abstract vegetation
-9th-10th century
-early Abbasid, with bilateral symmetry

• Glass cosmetic bottle:

-decorated with trailed glass threads
-are carried on back of domestic animals to imitate wicker baskets or cages protecting the bottle

• Luster

a high gloss finish with iridescence.
-started in 800bce with Egyptian and Syrian glass makers
-used metallic stains to get shimmering effect

• Glass beaker with polychrome luster decoration

free blown and painted in 3 colors
-bowl with Kufic inscription
-Damascus or Egypt in 8th-9th century
-metropolitan dates it 9th-10th centuries
-yellow, brown copper, silver stains,

• Ceramics:

more inclusive term than pottery

• Potter's wheel:

round spinning platform to make pottery on
-started in 4000bce in Egypt, 3250 in near east

• Earthenware painted with abstract design:

stained clay making ceramic luster
-9th century
-has both representational and abstract figures

• Sgraffito ware

: scratched: technique used in painting, pottery, glass. Having a preliminary surface, covering it with another, and then scratching the top layer.
-splash ware is created

• Dish from Uzbekistan:

green(copper), ochre (iron), brown(manganese)
-white, slip incise.
-with polychrome glaze, under transparent glaze
-10th century, nashipur Iran

• Metal work

been in use from 4th millennium,
Inherited techniques from Sasanian and Byzantine

• Dish with king representation

-Sasanian influence, 7th-8th century, Umayyad or early Abbasid
Iran

• Dish with geometric design enclosing simurghs

Iran, 9th-10th century
-beaten and punched

• Simurgh:

mythological creature of bird: half phoenix and lion

• Sculpture in the round: free standing sculpture

decoration of inlay with silver, and copper. With inscriptions, etc

• Ewer in form of a bird:

signed by sulayman in 796 Iran. Cast brass inlaid with copper and silver

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